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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of cases and matched controls

From: Obstructive sleep apnea and the risk of gout: a population-based case-control study

CharacteristicsCasesControls
N = 111,509%N = 210,241%
No. of females30,46127.358,71527.9
Age (mean, [SD], years)62.813.362.513.3
By class
 18–4922,05019.843,10320.5
 49–5925,92723.350,02523.8
 60–6926,12723.448,42423.0
 ≥ 7037,40533.568,68932.7
Smoking status
 Never46,79042.086,76441.3
 Current16,07714.439,18218.6
 Ex38,14634.254,75426.0
 Missing10,4969.429,54114.1
 BMI, kg/m2 (mean [SD])295.326.84.8
By category
 < 2518,93817.060,49728.8
 25–3039,49235.465,84231.3
 31–3422,07519.824,36911.6
 ≥ 3510,9929.989254.2
 Missing20,01217.950,60824.1
Alcohol
 No16,63914.934,93416.6
 Yes82,40573.9137,60565.5
 Missing12,46511.237,70217.9
Renal function*
 CKD 183827.518,5298.8
 CKD 231,83828.656,71227.0
 CKD 319,23017.216,7448.0
 CKD 420011.86110.3
 CKD 52060.21460.1
 Missing49,85244.7117,49955.9
History of comorbidities
 Acute myocardial infarction78587.083184.0
 Stroke59525.382833.9
 Heart failure89548.052132.5
 Hypertension49,48844.454,16625.8
 Diabetes mellitus10,9289.816,0587.6
 Hypercholesterolemia86997.810,8915.2
 OSA10941.011260.5
Use of diuretics+
 Loop diuretics17,97616.111,3775.4
 Thiazide diuretics24,04921.622,01210.5
  1. Abbreviations: N number, SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, CKD chronic kidney disease, OSA obstructive sleep apnea
  2. *CKD 1 (eGFR > 90 ml/min), CKD 2 (eGFR 60–89 ml/min), CKD 3 (eGFR 30–59 ml/min), CKD 4 (eGFR 15–29 ml/min), CKD 5 (< 15 ml/min)
  3. +Within 6 months prior to index date