Skip to main content

Table 2 Risk of gout in patients with OSA, stratified by gender, age, BMI, CKD, comorbidities, and recent use of diuretics

From: Obstructive sleep apnea and the risk of gout: a population-based case-control study

ExposureCasesControlsCrudeFully adj.
N = 111,509%N = 210,241%OR (CI)OR
No OSA110,41599.0209,11599.5ReferentReferent
OSA10940.9811260.541.86 (1.71–2.02)1.05 (0.96–1.16)
By gender
 Male9530.8510430.501.74 (1.59–1.90)1.05 (0.95–1.16)
 Female1410.13830.043.36 (2.56–4.42)1.64 (1.19–2.27)
By age class
 40–49 years2100.191860.092.22 (1.82–2.71)1.12 (0.90–1.41)
 50–59 years3460.313920.191.73 (1.50–2.00)0.96 (0.82–1.13)
 60–69 years3160.283410.161.75 (1.49–2.04)1.02 (0.86–1.22)
 > 70 years2220.202070.101.96 (1.62–2.37–1.13)1.20 (0.96–1.50)
By BMI, kg/m2a
 < 25400.041130.050.67 (0.47–0.97)0.67 (0.45–0.98)
 25–292240.203050.151.38 (1.16–1.64)1.15 (0.95–1.39)
 30–343180.293250.151.88 (1.61–2.20)1.34 (1.13–1.59)
 ≥ 354560.413220.152.74 (2.37–3.16)1.56 (1.33–1.83)
 Missing560.05610.031.78 (1.24–2.57)1.91 (1.30–2.81)
By renal function+,a
 CKD 11510.142500.121.17 (0.95–1.43)0.61 (0.49–0.76)
 CKD 24920.445270.251.80 (1.59–2.03)1.02 (0.89–1.17)
 CKD 32330.21920.044.76 (3.72–6.07)2.22 (1.70–2.91)
 CKD 4190.02< 5#0.0011.24 (3.34–37.81)3.93 (1.06–14.56)
 CKD 5< 5#0.00< 5#0.001.00 (0.09–11.03)0.41 (0.04–4.59)
 Missing1980.182520.121.50 (1.24–1.81)1.15 (0.94–1.40)
By history of comorbidities
 Acute myocardial infarctiona
  Yes800.07730.032.08 (1.51–2.86)0.80 (0.56–1.15)
  No10140.9110530.501.84 (1.69–2.01)1.07 (0.97–1.18)
 Strokea
  Yes520.05420.022.29 (1.52–2–3.44)1.05 (0.66–1.66)
  No10420.9310840.521.84 (1.69–2.01)–2.21)1.05 (0.96–1.16)
 Heart failurea
  Yes1280.11370.026.61 (4.58–9.54)1.82 (1.21–2.73)
  No9660.8710890.521.70 (1.56–1.85)1.01 (0.92–1.12)
 Diabetes mellitusa
  Yes2650.242580.121.96 (1.65–2.33)0.70 (0.58–0.85)
  No8290.748680.411.83 (1.66–2.01)1.16 (1.05–1.30)
 Hypertension a
  Yes6590.594660.222.71 (2.40–3.05)1.14 (1.00–1.30)
  No4350.396600.311.27 (1.12–1.43)0.98 (0.86–1.12)
 Hypercholesterolemia a
  Yes5530.505210.252.02 (1.79–2.28)0.94 (0.82–1.08)
  No5410.496050.291.72 (1.53–1.94)1.16 (1.02–1.32)
 By use of loops diuretics*,a
  Yes2600.23910.045.41 (4.26–6.87)1.73 (1.33–2.26)
  No8340.7510350.491.55 (1.41–1.69)1.01 (0.91–1.12)
 By use of thiazide diuretics*,a
  Yes2740.251290.064.10 (3.32–5.06)1.85 (1.47–2.33)
  No8200.749970.471.58 (1.43–1.73)0.93 (0.84–1.04)
  1. Abbreviations: N number, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, Fully adj. fully adjusted: adjusted for smoking status, alcohol use, body mass index, history of diabetes mellitus, heart failure and the most recently recorded eGFR measurement. In addition, we adjusted analyses for the use of statins, beta-blockers, Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, calcium channel, blockers and thiazide or loop diuretics 6 months before the index date, OSA obstructive sleep apnea, CKD chronic kidney disease, BMI body mass index
  2. +By the most recently recorded eGFR prior to index date. CKD 1 (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] > 90 ml/min), CKD 2 (eGFR 60–89 ml/min), CKD 3 (eGFR 30–59 ml/min), CKD 4 (eGFR 15–29 ml/min), CKD 5 (< 15 ml/min)
  3. #According to the Independent Scientific Advisory Committee (ISAC) guidance on the content of protocols for research using CPRD data, no cell containing < 5 cases or controls are reported
  4. *Within 6 months prior to index date
  5. aThe stratified analysis was not adjusted for the factor by which it was stratified