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Table 3 Statistical adjustment by body mass index, heart failure, and renal function and the association between OSA and gout

From: Obstructive sleep apnea and the risk of gout: a population-based case-control study

ExposureOdds ratio
(95% confidence interval)
No OSAReference
OSA
 Crude odds ratio1.86 (1.71–2.02)
Adjusted by
 BMI1.22 (1.12–1.33)
 Most recently recorded renal function1.61 (1.47–1.75)
 History of heart failure1.77 (1.63–1.93)
 Use of thiazide diuretics in previous 6 months1.69 (1.55–1.85)
 Use of loop diuretics in previous 6 months1.59 (1.46–1.73)
 All of the abovementioned confounders1.05 (0.96–1.16)
  1. Renal Function = renal function was estimated by lab data containing the most recently recorded eGFR. When only creatinine values were available, the MDRD formula was used to calculate the eGFR. In addition, read codes for the stage of chronic kidney disease were used to determine renal function
  2. Abbreviations: OSA obstructive sleep apnea, BMI body mass index