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Table 3 Statistical adjustment by body mass index, heart failure, and renal function and the association between OSA and gout

From: Obstructive sleep apnea and the risk of gout: a population-based case-control study


Odds ratio

(95% confidence interval)




 Crude odds ratio

1.86 (1.71–2.02)

Adjusted by


1.22 (1.12–1.33)

 Most recently recorded renal function

1.61 (1.47–1.75)

 History of heart failure

1.77 (1.63–1.93)

 Use of thiazide diuretics in previous 6 months

1.69 (1.55–1.85)

 Use of loop diuretics in previous 6 months

1.59 (1.46–1.73)

 All of the abovementioned confounders

1.05 (0.96–1.16)

  1. Renal Function = renal function was estimated by lab data containing the most recently recorded eGFR. When only creatinine values were available, the MDRD formula was used to calculate the eGFR. In addition, read codes for the stage of chronic kidney disease were used to determine renal function
  2. Abbreviations: OSA obstructive sleep apnea, BMI body mass index