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Table 2 Multivariable adjusted risk ratios (RRa) for analgesic consumption

From: Predictors of the use of analgesic drugs 1 year after joint replacement: a single-center analysis of 13,000 hip and knee replacements

 Preoperative (0–3 months)Postoperative (9–12 months)
Any analgesic**Any analgesic**AcetaminophenNSAIDOpioid
Age, years
 < 6511111
 65–751.02 (0.97–1.1)1.1 (1.03–1.2)1.4 (1.2–1.7)0.94 (0.85–1.03)1.03 (0.87–1.2)
 > 751.01 (0.95–1.1)1.2 (1.1–1.3)2.2 (1.9–2.5)0.77 (0.68–0.86)1.06 (0.89–1.3)
Female gender1.1 (1.1–1.2)1.2 (1.1–1.3)1.4 (1.2–1.6)1.2 (1.1–1.3)1.1 (0.98–1.3)
BMI, kg/m2
 < 2511111
 25 < 301.04 (0.98–1.1)1.1 (0.97–1.2)1.01 (0.87–1.2)1.1 (0.96–1.2)1.01 (0.83–1.2)
 30–351.1 (1.05–1.2)1.1 (1.04–1.2)1.2 (1.03–1.4)1.1 (0.99–1.3)1.1 (0.91–1.4)
 > 351.3 (1.2–1.4)1.4 (1.3–1.6)1.6 (1.4–2.0)1.5 (1.3–1.7)1.4 (1.1–1.8)
BMI, constant, per increase of 1 kg/m21.02 (1.01–1.02)1.02 (1.02–1.02)1.03 (1.02–1.04)1.02 (1.01–1.03)1.02 (1.01–1.03)
Charlson Comorbidity Index***
 011111
 11.1 (1.00–1.1)1.2 (1.1–1.3)1.3 (1.2–1.5)1.04 (0.94–1.2)1.3 (1.1–1.5)
 2 or more1.1 (1.01–1.2)1.2 (1.1–1.4)1.4 (1.2–1.6)1.02 (0.87–1.2)1.8 (1.5–2.2)
Diabetes
 No11111
 Yes, but without insulin medication0.99 (0.94–1.04)1.1 (0.99–1.3)1.01 (0.90–1.1)1.02 (0.93–1.1)1.1 (0.95–1.3)
 Yes, with insulin medication1.02 (0.93–1.1)0.98 (0.88–1.1)0.95 (0.79–1.2)0.89 (0.74–1.1)1.1 (0.86–1.4)
Cardiac disease****0.86 (0.80–0.93)0.94 (0.85–1.04)0.96 (0.81–1.1)0.77 (0.65–0.91)1.2 (0.94–1.4)
Psychotic disorder1.1 (0.92–1.2)1.1 (0.94–1.3)1.2 (0.93–1.7)0.77 (0.55–1.1)1.4 (0.96–1.9)
Neurodegenerative disease*****1.1 (0.96–1.3)1.03 (0.84–1.3)1.4 (1.1–1.9)0.88 (0.59–1.3)0.62 (0.35–1.1)
Chronic lung disease1.1 (0.98–1.2)1.1 (0.97–1.2)1.1 (0.89–1.3)1.2 (1.03–1.4)1.1 (0.86–1.4)
Hypertension1.01 (0.97–1.1)1.1 (0.997–1.1)1.04 (0.93–1.2)1.03 (0.93–1.1)1.1 (0.98–1.3)
History of malignancy1.1 (0.96–1.3)1.1 (0.89–1.3)1.00 (0.74–1.4)1.2 (0.86–1.6)0.97 (0.68–1.4)
Epilepsy1.1 (0.91–1.3)1.2 (0.99–1.6)1.3 (0.86–2.0)0.93 (0.61–1.4)1.9 (1.3–3.0)
Knee replacement vs hip replacement0.77 (0.74–0.81)1.2 (1.1–1.3)1.1 (1.01–1.3)1.2 (1.1–1.3)1.2 (1.1–1.4)
Preoperative analgesic use******2.6 (2.5–2.8)2.7 (2.4–3.0)2.7 (2.4–2.9)3.9 (3.3–4.6)
  1. RR (95% CI) adjusted with age (continuous), gender, joint, Charlson Comorbidity Index, BMI (continuous), laterality (unilateral vs bilateral), and use of antidepressant 1 year before surgery
  2. **Acetaminophen, NSAID, opioid
  3. ***Modified Charlson Comorbidity Index
  4. ****Coronary artery disease, heart failure, chronic arrhythmia
  5. *****Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease
  6. ******Use of any analgesic drug (acetaminophen, NSAID, and/or opioid) preoperatively