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Table 1 General characteristics of participants

From: Low levels of serum urate are associated with a higher prevalence of depression in older adults: a nationwide cross-sectional study in Korea

Variables Men (n = 2301) Women (n = 3031)
1st quartile 2nd quartile 3rd quartile 4th quartile Total p 1st quartile 2nd quartile 3rd quartile 4th quartile Total p
Age, years
 Mean 50.0 (0.7) 45.3 (0.8) 43.3 (0.8) 41.5 (0.6) 45.0 (0.4) < 0.001 47.2 (0.7) 45.8 (0.7) 46.4 (0.8) 47.3 (0.8) 46.6 (0.5) 0.378
Categories       < 0.001       0.059
 Young adults (19–39) 25.5 (2.3) 39.5 (2.8) 44.0 (2.5) 47.5 (2.4) 39.2 (1.4)   31.5 (2.1) 37.7 (2.1) 37.6 (2.3) 37.1 (2.4) 35.8 (1.3)  
 Middle-aged adults (40–59) 48.0 (2.5) 41.4 (2.3) 39.0 (2.2) 40.3 (2.4) 42.1 (1.3)   45.9 (2.0) 41.5 (2.1) 41.6 (1.9) 37.9 (2.3) 41.9 (1.1)  
 Older adults (60+) 26.5 (2.0) 19.1 (1.6) 16.9 (1.5) 12.3 (1.2) 18.7 (0.9)   22.5 (1.6) 20.9 (1.6) 20.9 (1.7) 25.0 (1.8) 22.3 (1.0)  
Educational levels       < 0.001       0.652
 Elementary school 14.1 (1.5) 9.7 (1.2) 7.3 (1.0) 5.1 (0.8) 9.0 (0.6)   17.8 (1.6) 19.5 (1.7) 17.7 (1.7) 19.0 (1.8) 18.5 (1.0)  
 Middle school 10.5 (1.3) 6.9 (1.1) 6.9 (1.2) 8.8 (1.4) 8.3 (0.7)   10.5 (1.3) 8.6 (1.1) 9.7 (1.2) 9.7 (1.4) 9.6 (0.6)  
 High school 36.2 (2.4) 36.7 (2.5) 36.4 (2.2) 40.0 (2.6) 37.3 (1.4)   38.8 (1.9) 33.9 (1.9) 36.6 (2.3) 34.3 (2.3) 36.0 (1.1)  
 College 39.1 (2.6) 46.7 (2.7) 49.4 (2.5) 46.1 (2.6) 45.4 (1.7)   32.9 (2.1) 38.0 (2.1) 35.9 (2.8) 37.0 (2.3) 35.9 (1.3)  
Household income levels       0.381       0.817
 1st quartile 15.5 (1.9) 14.3 (2.0) 12.8 (1.6) 12.2 (2.0) 13.7 (1.2)   15.4 (1.6) 15.0 (1.6) 17.0 (1.8) 17.9 (2.2) 16.2 (1.2)  
 2nd quartile 20.6 (2.2) 24.9 (2.2) 20.9 (2.0) 23.9 (2.3) 22.6 (1.2)   24.0 (1.9) 22.0 (2.0) 23.5 (1.9) 24.3 (1.9) 23.4 (1.1)  
 3rd quartile 33.8 (2.3) 29.1 (2.3) 32.5 (2.5) 28.0 (2.5) 30.8 (1.4)   30.7 (2.1) 32.3 (2.1) 28.7 (2.1) 27.5 (2.2) 29.9 (1.3)  
 4th quartile 30.1 (2.7) 31.7 (2.8) 33.8 (2.6) 36.0 (2.7) 32.9 (1.8)   29.9 (2.4) 30.7 (2.6) 30.9 (2.6) 30.3 (2.5) 30.5 (1.8)  
Body mass index, kg/m2
 Mean 24.0 (0.2) 23.9 (0.1) 24.7 (0.2) 25.8 (0.2) 24.6 (0.1) < 0.001 22.6 (0.1) 22.9 (0.1) 23.4 (0.2) 24.7 (0.2) 23.4 (0.1) < 0.001
Categories       < 0.001       < 0.001
 < 18.5 3.4 (0.8) 3.3 (1.1) 1.9 (0.8) 1.2 (0.5) 2.5 (0.4)   6.3 (1.0) 5.6 (0.9) 6.3 (1.3) 4.0 (0.9) 5.6 (0.6)  
 18.5–24.9 61.5 (2.3) 61.7 (2.2) 54.3 (2.3) 44.4 (2.5) 55.5 (1.3)   74.1 (1.7) 71.9 (1.8) 65.5 (2.0) 51.2 (2.1) 66.1 (1.0)  
 ≥ 25 35.1 (2.4) 34.9 (2.3) 43.8 (2.3) 54.4 (2.5) 42.1 (1.3)   19.6 (1.6) 22.5 (1.6) 28.3 (1.8) 44.8 (2.2) 28.3 (1.1)  
Presence of chronic disease 40.6 (2.4) 32.6 (2.0) 27.9 (2.0) 26.8 (2.2) 31.9 (1.1) < 0.001 34.1 (1.9) 32.6 (1.9) 35.4 (2.2) 42.5 (2.3) 36.0 (1.2) 0.004
Lifetime diagnosis of depression 2.2 (0.7) 2.8 (0.8) 0.7 (0.3) 4.2 (1.1) 2.5 (0.4) 0.007 5.8 (1.1) 6.5 (0.9) 5.2 (1.0) 5.2 (1.0) 7.3 (1.2) 0.566
Perceived health status       0.877       0.030
 Fair, poor, or very poor 65.1 (2.4) 63.3 (2.2) 64.8 (2.4) 65.9 (2.2) 64.8 (1.1)   74.8 (1.8) 68.5 (1.9) 68.2 (2.1) 72.8 (2.0) 71.1 (1.1)  
Perceived stress       0.127       0.513
 Much or very much 25.0 (2.0) 26.0 (2.1) 26.2 (2.0) 31.9 (2.4) 27.3 (0.9)   29.5 (1.9) 27.5 (1.8) 27.6 (2.1) 31.2 (2.1) 28.9 (0.9)  
Current smokers 40.0 (2.3) 36.8 (2.6) 41.0 (2.7) 40.0 (2.4) 39.5 (1.4) 0.637 3.9 (0.7) 5.6 (1.0) 6.8 (1.2) 9.0 (1.5) 6.2 (0.6) 0.008
Current drinkers 84.4 (1.5) 84.5 (1.8) 91.1 (1.3) 90.1 (1.4) 87.6 (0.8) 0.001 65.6 (1.8) 70.9 (1.9) 71.2 (2.0) 70.7 (1.9) 69.5 (1.1) 0.091
Self-reported current depression 1.0 (0.5) 1.0 (0.4) 0.5 (0.3) 2.7 (0.9) 1.3 (0.3) 0.013 3.4 (0.8) 4.1 (0.8) 2.8 (0.7) 4.6 (1.0) 3.7 (0.4) 0.794
Current antidepressant use 1.0 (0.5) 0.4 (0.2) 0.3 (0.3) 2.3 (0.9) 1.0 (0.3) 0.004 2.4 (0.7) 2.8 (0.7) 1.7 (0.5) 3.2 (0.7) 2.5 (0.3) 0.807
PHQ-9 scores
  Mean 2.1 (0.2) 2.0 (0.2) 1.9 (0.2) 2.3 (0.2) 2.1 (0.1) 0.660 3.1 (0.2) 3.2 (0.2) 3.1 (0.2) 3.3 (0.2) 3.2 (0.1) 0.748
 ≥ 5 15.8 (1.9) 14.5 (1.9) 12.9 (1.7) 17.1 (2.0) 15.0 (0.9) 0.399 23.7 (1.7) 25.1 (1.8) 23.8 (2.1) 26.0 (1.9) 24.7 (1.1) 0.762
 ≥ 10 3.7 (0.8) 4.0 (1.0) 3.5 (0.8) 4.3 (1.2) 3.9 (0.5) 0.927 6.9 (1.0) 7.1 (1.1) 6.5 (1.1) 7.5 (1.3) 7.0 (0.6) 0.932
CRP, mg/L, mean 1.52 (0.14) 1.14 (0.10) 1.17 (0.08) 1.50 (0.10) 1.33 (0.05) 0.007 0.93 (0.07) 0.86 (0.05) 1.10 (0.08) 1.43 (0.09) 1.08 (0.04) < 0.001
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2, mean 96.5 (0.8) 96.6 (0.9) 97.0 (0.8) 95.8 (0.9) 96.5 (0.5) 0.759 103.8 (0.7) 102.5 (0.6) 100.2 (0.7) 97.7 (0.8) 101.1 (0.4) < 0.001
  1. Values are presented using means or proportions with standard errors
  2. BMI body mass index, CRP C-reactive protein, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, EQ-5D EuroQol-5 Dimensions, PHQ Patient Health Questionnaire