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Table 2 Comparison of the clinical characteristics between the patients with proliferative LN and membranous LN

From: Non-histologic factors discriminating proliferative lupus nephritis from membranous lupus nephritis

 Proliferative LN (N = 150)Membranous LN (N = 18)p
Age, mean (± SD), years35.8 (± 14.3)39.8 (± 15.4)0.269
Female sex, n (%)138 (92.0%)16 (88.9%)0.649
Hypertension, n (%)34 (22.7%)4 (22.2%)> 0.999
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)9 (6.0%)0 (0.0%)0.599
SLE manifestations
 Mucocutaneous, n (%)41 (27.3%)5 (27.8%)> 0.999
 Musculoskeletal, n (%)41 (27.3%)3 (16.7%)0.408
 Neuropsychiatric, n (%)10 (6.7%)3 (16.7%)0.149
 Serositis, n (%)23 (15.3%)1 (5.6%)0.475
 Hematologic, n (%)67 (44.7%)3 (16.7%)0.023
Serology
 Positive anti-Sm Ab, n (%)59 (39.3%)9 (50.0%)0.384
 Positive anti-Ro Ab, n (%)89 (59.3%)11 (61.1%)0.885
 Positive anti-La Ab, n (%)44 (29.3%)3 (16.7%)0.258
 Positive anti-U1RNP Ab, n (%)73 (48.7%)14 (77.8%)0.020
 Positive anti-dsDNA Ab, n (%)132 (88.0%)9 (50.0%)< 0.001
 Anti-dsDNA Ab level, median (IQR), IU/mL230.3 (79.0–380.0)9.0 (2.5–123.5)< 0.001
 Positive anti-dsDNA Ab and negative anti-U1RNP Ab, n (%)66 (44.0%)1 (5.6%)0.002
 Positive anti-U1RNP Ab and negative anti-dsDNA Ab, n (%)7 (4.7%)6 (33.3%)0.001
 Positive anti-dsDNA Ab and anti-U1RNP Ab, n (%)66 (44.0%)8 (44.4%)0.971
 Positive lupus anticoagulant, n (%)32 (21.3%)3 (16.7%)0.768
 Positive anti-β2 glycoprotein I Ab, n (%)18 (12.0%)5 (27.8%)0.077
 Positive anti-cardiolipin Ab, n (%)39 (26.0%)3 (16.7%)0.566
 Low C3, n (%)141 (94.0%)11 (61.1%)< 0.001
 C3 level, median (IQR), mg/dL41.0 (27.9–60.1)64.7 (44.3–92.3)0.001
 Low C4, n (%)119 (79.3%)9 (50.0%)0.015
 C4 level, median (IQR), mg/dL5.5 (2.5–11.9)12.8 (7.3–23.5)< 0.001
 Albumin level, mean (± SD), g/dL2.8 (± 0.7)2.9 (± 0.9)0.800
 Creatinine level, mean (± SD), mg/dL1.13 (± 0.79)0.70 (± 0.26)< 0.001
 GFR, mean (± SD), mL/min/1.73 m283.2 (± 37.0)105.1 (± 23.8)0.002
Urine
 Urine PCR, median (IQR), mg/g3935.0 (1903.4–6439.7)3464.5 (2061.8–5775.0)0.778
 Urine RBC of ≥ 5/HPF, n (%)109 (72.7%)7 (38.9%)0.003
 Urine WBC of ≥ 5/HPF, n (%)86 (57.3%)6 (33.3%)0.053
 Urine cast, n (%)31 (20.7%)1 (5.6%)0.202
SLEDAI-2K, mean (± SD)17.1 (± 5.8)12.2 (± 5.8)0.001
  1. LN lupus nephritis, SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, Ab antibody, anti-dsDNA anti-double-stranded DNA, GFR glomerular filtration rate, PCR protein/creatinine ratio, RBC red blood cell, HPF high power field, WBC white blood cell, SLEDAI-2K Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000, SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range