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Table 3 Factors associated with proliferative LN

From: Non-histologic factors discriminating proliferative lupus nephritis from membranous lupus nephritis

 Univariable analysisMultivariable analysis (model 1)Multivariable analysis (model 2)
 OR (95% CI)pOR (95% CI)pOR (95% CI)p
Age0.982 (0.951–1.014)0.269    
Female sex1.437 (0.295–7.006)0.653    
Hypertension1.026 (0.317–3.322)0.966    
Diabetes mellitusN/A0.999    
Mucocutaneous manifestations0.978 (0.328–2.915)0.968    
Musculoskeletal manifestations1.881 (0.517–6.836)0.337    
Neuropsychiatric manifestations0.357 (0.088–1.442)0.148    
Serositis3.079 (0.390–24.280)0.286    
Hematologic manifestations4.036 (1.121–14.527)0.0333.277 (0.665–16.148)0.1451.963 (0.393–9.810)0.411
Positive anti-Sm Ab0.648 (0.243–1.728)0.386    
Positive anti-Ro Ab0.928 (0.341–2.529)0.885    
Positive anti-La Ab2.075 (0.572–7.528)0.267    
Positive anti-U1RNP Aba0.271 (0.085–0.861)0.0270.176 (0.040–0.769)0.0210.985 (0.976–0.994)0.002
Positive anti-dsDNA Aba7.333 (2.574–20.893)< 0.00111.200 (2.202–56.957)0.0041.008 (1.002–1.014)0.014
Positive lupus anticoagulant1.356 (0.370–4.974)0.646    
Positive anti-β2 glycoprotein I Ab0.355 (0.113–1.112)0.075    
Positive anti-cardiolipin Ab1.757 (0.483–6.396)0.393    
Low C3a9.970 (3.117–31.891)< 0.0011.886 (0.255–13.932)0.5341.012 (0.968–1.058)0.608
Low C4a3.839 (1.405–10.486)0.0091.224 (0.229–6.552)0.8130.929 (0.834–1.033)0.175
Albumin level0.886 (0.434–1.805)0.738    
Creatinine level10.645 (1.350–83.953)0.025    
GFR0.980 (0.964–0.997)0.0210.973 (0.951–0.994)0.0130.969 (0.946–0.994)0.014
Urine PCR1.000 (0.987–1.013)0.986    
Urine RBC of ≥ 5/HPF4.178 (1.516–11.509)0.0062.053 (0.426–9.893)0.3701.721 (0.307–9.652)0.537
Urine WBC of ≥ 5/HPF2.687 (0.958–7.543)0.060    
Urine cast4.429 (0.567–34.578)0.156    
SLEDAI-2K1.173 (1.063–1.294)0.0011.046 (0.900–1.216)0.5571.112 (0.923–1.338)0.263
  1. Ab antibody, anti-dsDNA anti-double-stranded DNA, GFR glomerular filtration rate, PCR protein/creatinine ratio, RBC red blood cell, HPF high power field, WBC white blood cell, SLEDAI-2K Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, N/A not applicable
  2. aAnalyzed as binary variables (anti-U1RNP Ab, positive/negative; anti-dsDNA Ab, positive/negative; C3, low/not low; C4, low/not low) in univariable analysis and multivariable analysis (model 1) and analyzed as continuous variables in multivariable analysis (model 2)