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Table 5 Sensitivity analysis: factors associated with mixed proliferative LN (classes III + V and IV + V, n = 28) vs membranous LN (class V, n = 18)

From: Non-histologic factors discriminating proliferative lupus nephritis from membranous lupus nephritis

 Univariable analysisMultivariable analysis (model 1)Multivariable analysis (model 2)
 OR (95% CI)pOR (95% CI)pOR (95% CI)p
Age0.965 (0.920–1.012)0.142    
Female sex1.625 (0.208–12.705)0.644    
Hypertension0.955 (0.228–3.995)0.949    
Diabetes mellitusN/A> 0.999    
Mucocutaneous manifestations0.709 (0.180–2.792)0.623    
Musculoskeletal manifestations1.667 (0.370–7.515)0.506    
Neuropsychiatric manifestations0.600 (0.107–3.363)0.561    
Serositis1.308 (0.110–15.570)0.832    
Hematologic manifestations2.368 (0.544–10.317)0.251    
Positive anti-Sm Ab0.400 (0.116–1.376)0.146    
Positive anti-Ro Ab0.552 (0.165–1.838)0.333    
Positive anti-La Ab1.364 (0.294–6.319)0.692    
Positive anti-U1RNP Aba0.286 (0.075–1.086)0.066    
Positive anti-dsDNA Abb4.600 (1.207–17.524)0.0254.545 (1.107–18.661)0.0361.003 (0.999–1.007)0.159
Positive lupus anticoagulant2.000 (0.452–8.841)0.361    
Positive anti-β2 glycoprotein I Ab0.433 (0.099–1.900)0.267    
Positive anti-cardiolipin Ab1.364 (0.294–6.319)0.692    
Low C3a3.818 (0.922–15.808)0.065    
Low C4a1.333 (0.406–4.379)0.635    
Albumin level0.866 (0.435–1.721)0.680    
Creatinine level5.076 (0.446–57.756)0.190    
GFR0.988 (0.968–1.009)0.273    
Urine PCR1.002 (0.985–1.020)0.808    
Urine RBC of ≥ 5/HPF3.929 (1.122–13.755)0.0323.326 (0.559–19.795)0.1872.402 (0.464–12.428)0.296
Urine WBC of ≥ 5/HPF3.091 (0.895–10.672)0.074    
Urine cast4.636 (0.509–42.246)0.174    
SLEDAI-2K1.134 (1.015–1.266)0.0261.020 (0.872–1.195)0.8011.074 (0.935–1.233)0.315
  1. Ab antibody, anti-dsDNA anti-double-stranded DNA, GFR glomerular filtration rate, PCR protein/creatinine ratio, RBC red blood cell, HPF high power field, WBC white blood cell, SLEDAI-2K Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, N/A not applicable
  2. aAnalyzed as binary variables (anti-U1RNP Ab, positive/negative; C3, low/not low; C4, low/not low) in univariable analysis
  3. bAnalyzed as binary variables (Anti-dsDNA Ab, positive/negative) in univariable analysis and multivariable analysis (model 1) and analyzed as continuous variables in multivariable analysis (model 2)