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Table 6 Sensitivity analysis: factors associated with pure proliferative LN (classes III and IV, n = 122) vs non-proliferative LN (classes I, II, V and VI, n = 26)

From: Non-histologic factors discriminating proliferative lupus nephritis from membranous lupus nephritis

 Univariable analysisMultivariable analysis (model 1)Multivariable analysis (model 2)
 OR (95% CI)pOR (95% CI)pOR (95% CI)p
Age0.977 (0.951–1.002)0.074    
Female sex2.036 (0.586–7.082)0.263    
Hypertension0.809 (0.308–2.120)0.666    
Diabetes mellitusN/A0.999    
Mucocutaneous manifestations1.690 (0.591–4.834)0.328    
Musculoskeletal manifestations1.623 (0.566–4.649)0.367    
Neuropsychiatric manifestations0.335 (0.090–1.241)0.102    
Serositis2.495 (0.547–11.375)0.238    
Hematologic manifestations2.460 (0.964–6.276)0.060    
Positive anti-Sm Ab0.838 (0.358–1.962)0.684    
Positive anti-Ro Ab1.212 (0.513–2.863)0.662    
Positive anti-La Ab2.488 (0.802–7.719)0.115    
Positive anti-U1RNP Aba0.345 (0.135–0.880)0.0260.273 (0.085–0.873)0.0290.991 (0.984–0.998)0.012
Positive anti-dsDNA Aba8.385 (3.210–21.900)< 0.00113.741 (3.058–61.753)0.0011.008 (1.003–1.012)0.002
Positive lupus anticoagulant1.347 (0.424–4.276)0.613    
Positive anti-β2 glycoprotein I Ab0.544 (0.177–1.674)0.289    
Positive anti-cardiolipin Ab2.039 (0.654–6.362)0.220    
Low C3a10.400 (3.062–35.318)< 0.0012.072 (0.281–15.292)0.4750.994 (0.958–1.031)0.747
Low C4a3.975 (1.586–9.967)0.0031.811 (0.430–7.635)0.4180.958 (0.868–1.058)0.395
Albumin level0.665 (0.347–1.274)0.218    
Creatinine level2.722 (0.970–7.634)0.057    
GFR0.983 (0.969–0.996)0.0130.970 (0.952–0.989)0.0030.972 (0.954–0.990)0.002
Urine PCR1.003 (0.990–1.015)0.669    
Urine RBC of ≥ 5/HPF3.678 (1.534–8.819)0.0042.038 (0.538–7.720)0.2952.400 (0.588–9.796)0.222
Urine WBC of ≥ 5/HPF2.083 (0.875–4.959)0.097    
Urine cast1.976 (0.549–7.113)0.297    
SLEDAI-2K1.149 (1.056–1.251)0.0011.012 (0.896–1.144)0.8451.017 (0.883–1.171)0.818
  1. Ab antibody, anti-dsDNA anti-double-stranded DNA, GFR glomerular filtration rate, PCR protein/creatinine ratio, RBC red blood cell, HPF high power field, WBC white blood cell, SLEDAI-2K Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, N/A not applicable
  2. aAnalyzed as binary variables (anti-U1RNP Ab, positive/negative; anti-dsDNA Ab, positive/negative; C3, low/not low; C4, low/not low) in univariable analysis and multivariable analysis (model 1) and analyzed as continuous variables in multivariable analysis (model 2)