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Table 1 Study characteristics and risk of bias assessment of included studies

From: Assessing the effect of interventions for axial spondyloarthritis according to the endorsed ASAS/OMERACT core outcome set: a meta-research study of trials included in Cochrane reviews

Author Year No. of patients randomized No. of patients receiving intervention No. of patients receiving comparison Trial duration (weeks) Intervention Comparator Risk of bias* selection/performance/attrition/reporting
Dougados 1986 30 15 15 26 SSZ (P) PL A/A/A/A
Feltelius 1986 37 18 19 12 SSZ (P) PL U/U/A/A
Nissila 1988 85 43 42 26 SSZ (P) PL U/U/A/A
Davis 1989 30 15 15 12 SSZ (P) PL U/U/A/A
Kraag 1989 53 26 27 16 Supervised training (NP) SC U/U/I/A
Winkler 1989 63 31 32 24 SSZ (P) PL U/U/U/A
Corkill 1990 62 32 30 48 SSZ (P) PL A/A/I/A
Krajnc 1990 95 71 24 24 SSZ (P) PL U/U/A/A
Taylor 1991 40 20 20 52 SSZ (P) PL A/A/A/I
Hidding 1993 144 68 76 36 Group physiotherapy (NP) AC A/A/I/A
Kirwan 1993 89 44 45 156 SSZ (P) PL A/A/A/I
Dougados 1994 70 46 24 12 Ximoprofen 5 mg (P) PL A/A/U/A
1994 73 49 24 34 Ximoprofen 10 mg (P) PL A/A/U/A
1994 69 45 24 8 Ximoprofen 20 mg (P) PL A/A/U/A
1994 74 50 24 6 Ximoprofen 30 mg (P) PL A/A/U/A
Clegg 1996 264 131 133 36 SSZ (P) PL U/U/A/A
Helliwell 1996 22 15 7 44 In-patient physiotherapy (NP) SC I/I/I/A
1996 22 15 7 44 Out-patient hydrotherapy (NP) SC I/I/I/A
Dougados 1999 148 108 40 6 Piroxicam (P) PL U/U/A/A
1999 160 120 40 6 Meloxicam 15 mg (P) PL U/U/A/A
1999 164 124 40 6 Meloxicam 22.5 mg (P) PL U/U/A/A
Altan 2001 51 26 25 52 MTX (P) AC U/U/I/I
Dougados 2001 118 80 38 6 Celecoxib (P) PL U/U/U/A
2001 128 90 38 6 Ketoprofen (P) PL U/U/U/A
Van Tubergen 2001 120 80 40 3 Spa-exercise therapy (NP) AC A/A/I/A
Braun 2002 70 35 35 12 Infliximab (B) PL A/A/A/I
Gorman 2002 40 20 20 16 Etanercept (B) PL A/A/A/A
Roychowdhury 2002 30 14 16 24 MTX (P) PL U/U/A/A
Schmidt 2002 70 34 36 26 SSZ (P) PL U/U/U/A
Sweeney 2002 200 100 100 26 Supervised training (NP) SC U/U/I/A
Analay 2003 51 27 24 12 Supervised training (NP) SC A/A/I/A
Brandt 2003 33 16 17 6 Etanercept (B) PL A/A/A/I
Davis 2003 277 138 139 24 Etanercept (B) PL A/A/A/A
Calin 2004 84 45 39 12 Etanercept (B) PL U/U/A/A
Gonzalez-Lopez 2004 35 17 18 24 MTX (P) PL A/A/A/I
Codish 2005 28 14 14 12 Balneo therapy (NP) AC U/U/I/A
D’Las Penas 2005 40 20 20 16 Supervised training (NP) SC A/A/I/A
Lim 2005 50 25 25 8 Supervised training (NP) SC U/U/I/A
Marzo-Ortega 2005 42 28 14 30 Infliximab (B) PL A/A/U/A
Van der Heijde 2005 279 201 78 24 Infliximab (B) PL U/U/A/A
Van der Heijde 2005 134 103 31 6 Etoricoxib (P) PL A/A/A/A
2005 123 92 31 6 Etoricoxib (P) PL A/A/A/A
2005 130 99 31 6 Naproxen (P) PL A/A/A/A
Altan 2006 60 30 30 24 Balneo therapy (NP) AC U/U/I/A
Barkhuizen 2006 189 137 52 12 Celecoxib 200 mg (P) PL U/U/U/A
2006 213 161 52 12 Celecoxib 400 mg (P) PL U/U/U/A
2006 209 157 52 12 Naproxen (P) PL U/U/U/A
Ince 2006 30 15 15 12 Supervised training (NP) SC U/U/I/A
Van der Heijde 2006 315 208 107 24 Adalimumab (B) PL A/A/A/A
Van der Heijde 2006 180 155 25 24 Etanercept (B) PL U/U/U/A
2006 175 150 25 24 Etanercept (B) PL U/U/U/A
Lambert 2007 82 38 44 24 Adalimumab (B) PL U/U/A/A
Huang 2008 126 83 43 8 Etanercept (B) PL U/U/U/U
Inman 2008 177 138 39 14 Golimumab (B) PL A/A/A/A
2008 179 149 39 14 Golimumab (B) PL A/A/A/A
Barkham 2010 40 20 20 12 Etanercept (B) PL U/U/A/A
Inman 2010 76 39 37 12 Infliximab (B) PL U/U/U/A
Braun 2011 566 379 187 16 Etanercept (B) AC A/A/A/A
Dougados 2011 82 39 43 12 Etanercept (B) PL U/U/A/I
Navarro-Sarabia 2011 108 54 54 12 Etanercept (B) AC A/A/A/A
Hu 2012 46 26 20 12 Adalimumab (B) PL U/U/U/I
Bao 2014 213 108 105 24 Golimumab (B) PL U/U/U/A
Huang 2014 344 229 114 12 Adalimumab (B) PL A/A/A/A
  1. *Shown as selection bias (methods for sequence generation and allocation)/performance bias (blinding of participants and personnel)/attrition bias (incomplete outcome data)/reporting bias (selective outcome reporting). Abbreviations: SSZ sulfasalazine, P pharmacological modalities, PL placebo, NP non-pharmacological modalities, B biological modalities, SC standard care, AC active comparison, A adequate, U unclear, I inadequate