Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of included patients with or without lupus nephritis

From: Clinical and histological significance of urinary CD11c+ macrophages in lupus nephritis

  Inactive SLE (N = 10) Active SLE (N = 5) Inactive LN (N = 5) Active LN (N = 41) P value
Age (years) 40.7 ± 14.5 30.8 ± 10.6 36.6 ± 4.7 35.0 ± 13.5 0.515
Female 10 (100) 5 (100) 5 (100) 36 (87.8) 0.136
Hypertension 4 (40) 0 (0) 1 (20) 18 (44) 0.369
Diabetes mellitus 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (2.4) 0.524
Laboratory data
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.61 (0.56–0.72) 0.55 (0.39–0.69) 0.79 (0.60–1.08) 0.68 (0.57–0.88) 0.135
 eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 117 (102–126) 133 (115–135) 94 (72–117) 108 (81–128) 0.180
 Albumin (g/dL) 3.6 (3.5–3.9) 3.8 (3.2–4.2) 3.7 (3.6–4.0) 2.7 (2.1–3.3) < 0.001
 C3a (mg/dL) 69.1 ± 20.0 (n = 9) 71.0 ± 37.2 68.2 ± 15.9 52.0 ± 25.7 0.120
 C4a (mg/dL) 13.6 ± 6.5 (n = 9) 8.4 ± 6.2 17.6 ± 6.5 12.6 ± 10.1 0.460
 Anti-dsDNA aba (IU/mL) 18.1 (9.4–30.0) (n = 9) 60.1 (20.1–89.2) 10.4 (6.9–30.8) 85.4 (24.4–297.0) 0.029
 Proteinuriaa (mg/g) 147.8 (70.3–316.5) (n = 9) 179.1 (n = 3) 135.1 (96.9–349.1) 1715.1 (949.8–4429.9) < 0.001
 Urine specific gravity 1.017 ± 0.008 1.014 ± 0.007 1.017 ± 0.008 1.016 ± 0.006 0.811
Lupus involvement
 Kidney 0 (0) 0 (0) 5 (100) 41 (100) < 0.001
 Joint 0 (0) 5 (100) 0 (0) 5 (12.2) 0.437
 Hematologic 2 (20) 4 (80) 3 (60) 16 (39) 0.748
 Serositis 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 10 (24.4) 0.029
 Constitutional 0 (0) 3 (60) 0 (0) 15 (36.6) 0.080
 CNS 0 (0) 2 (40) 0 (0) 3 (7.3) 0.901
SLEDAIa 3.9 ± 1.3 14.6 ± 5.7 3.4 ± 0.9 14.1 ± 6.4 < 0.001
Lupus nephritis histologic class      < 0.001
 II 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 5 (12.2)  
 III 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (60) 13 (31.7)  
 IV 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (40) 10 (24.4)  
 II + V 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (2.4)  
 III + V or IV + V 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 4 (9.8)  
 V 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 8 (19.5)  
Treatment
 Hydroxychloroquine 9 (90) 5 (100) 5 (100) 40 (97.6) 0.348
 Steroids      0.004
  None 4 (40) 0 (0) 3 (60) 2 (4.9)  
  Low dose 2 (20) 0 (0) 2 (40) 6 (14.6)  
  Medium dose 4 (40) 3 (60) 0 (0) 17 (41.5)  
  High dose 0 (0) 2 (40) 0 (0) 14 (34.1)  
  Pulse 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (4.9)  
 Immunosuppressive drugs
  None 8 (80) 0 (0) 0 (0) 4 (9.8) < 0.001
  Intravenous cyclophosphamide 0 (0) 1 (20) 2 (40) 13 (31.7) 0.052
  Mycophenolate mofetil 2 (20) 1 (20) 5 (100) 22 (53.7) 0.045
  Tacrolimus 0 (0) 1 (20) 2 (40) 19 (46.3) 0.005
  Azathioprine 0 (0) 1 (20) 1 (20) 7 (17.1) 0.260
  Methotrexate 0 (0) 2 (40) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.120
  1. Results expressed as the mean ± standard deviation, median (interquartile range), or number (%)
  2. eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate
  3. aMissing values were excluded from analysis