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Table 1 Clinical and demographic characteristics of the analysis cohort (n = 573)

From: Hydroxychloroquine levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: whole blood is preferable but serum levels also detect non-adherence

Covariables
Age at diagnosis (years) 29.3 ± 11.9
Female sex, n (%) 520 (91.3)
Geographical origin, n (%)
 Europe 335 (58.5)
 Sub-Saharan Africa and West Indies (Antilles) 99 (17.3)
 North Africa 82 (14.3)
 Asia 49 (8.6)
 Other 8 (1.4)
Total body weight (kg) 64.9 ± 14.1
BMI (kg/m2) 24.0 ± 4.8
Lean body mass (kg) 41.5 ± 7.9
Active smoking, n (%) 130 (22.7)
Immunosuppressants, n (%)
 Corticosteroids 373 (65.1)
 Othera 103 (18.0)
SLEDAI score 2.4 ± 3.2
Clinical manifestations
 Photosensitivity 328 (57.2)
 Malar rash 276 (48.2)
 Discoid lupus 64 (11.2)
 Arthritis 506 (88.3)
 Oral ulcers 96 (16.8)
 Haematological manifestations 354 (61.8)
 Serositis 146 (25.5)
 Nephropathy 176 (30.7)
 Neuropsychiatric manifestations 37 (6.5)
HCQ daily dosing, n (%)
 400 mg/day 522 (91.1)
 200 mg/day 51 (8.9)
Biological characteristics
 Leukocytes (× 109/l) 6.3 ± 2.4
 Neutrophils (× 109/l) 4.4 ± 2.2
 Lymphocytes (× 109/l) 1. 5 ± 0.7
 Platelets (× 109/l) 253 ± 75
 Haemoglobin (g/dL) 13.1 ± 1.4
Creatinine clearance (mL/min) 103 ± 32
 Mild renal dysfunction, n (%) 224 (39.1)
 Moderate renal dysfunction, n (%) 17 (3)
Plasma C3 level (g/L) 1.00 ± 0.23
Plasma C4 level (g/L) 0.019 ± 0.08
  1. BMI body mass index, HCQ hydroxychloroquine, SLEDAI SLE Disease Activity Index
  2. Quantitative variables are expressed as mean ± standard deviation
  3. aOther include azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and mycophenolate mofetil
  4. Creatinine clearance between 60 and 90 mL/min
  5. Creatinine clearance between 30 and 60 mL/min