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Table 2 Associations with sleep disturbance, fatigue, and depression in psoriatic arthritis patients tested in univariate and multivariate linear regression models

From: Psoriatic arthritis: exploring the occurrence of sleep disturbances, fatigue, and depression and their correlates

  Sleep disturbance NRS (0–10) Fatigue NRS (0–10) Depression (0–3)
Univariate p Adjusted p Univariate   Adjusted p Univariate   Adjusted p
B (95% CI) B (95% CI) B (95% CI) B (95% CI) B (95% CI) B (95% CI)
Demographics
 Age, years, mean (SD) − 0.003 (− 0.051, 0.045) 0.905 − 0.013 (− 0.052, 0.027) 0.525 − 0.032 (− 0.074, 0.011) 0.148 − 0.021 (− 0.055, 0.013) 0.227 − 0.001 (− 0.011, 0.009) 0.854 0.001 (− 0.009, 0.011) 0.911
 Female 1.278 (0.311, 2.245) 0.010 0.387 (− 0.462, 1.237) 0.368 1.165 (0.297, 2.033) 0.009 0.115 (− 0.622, 0.852) 0.758 0.184 (− 0.015, 0.382) 0.069 0.041 (− 0.161, 0.243) 0.689
 BMI, kg/m2 (n = 135), mean (SD) 0.159 (0.047, 0.270) 0.006 0.079 (− 0.019, 0.177) 0.113 0.102 (− 0.001, 0.204) 0.052 − 0.020 (− 0.106, 0.067) 0.656 0.009 (− 0.014, 0.032) 0.447 0.001 (− 0.023, 0.025) 0.944
 Currently smoking, number (%) 1.909 (0.646, 3.172) 0.003 − 0.154 (− 1.278, 0.970) 0.786 1.538 (0.397, 2.679) 0.009 0.238 (− 0.716, 1.193) 0.621 0.337 (0.079, 0.594) 0.011 0.100 (− 0.167, 0.366) 0.461
 Living together (n = 134), number (%) 0.386 (− 0.828, 1.600) 0.531 0.219 (− 0.884, 1.322) 0.695 − 0.196 (− 0.441, 0.049) 0.116 − 0.212 (− 0.455, 0.022) 0.075
 Currently working* (n = 135), number (%) − 1.413 (− 2.384, − 0.442) 0.005 0.035 (− 0.853, 0.924) 0.937 − 1.380 (− 2.255, − 0.506) 0.002 − 0.031 (− 0.806, 0.745) 0.938 − 0.233 (− 0.433, − 0.033) 0.022 − 0.108 (− 0.322, 0.105) 0.318
Musculoskeletal disease measures
 PsA disease duration, years, mean (SD) 0.021 (− 0.052, 0.095) 0.563 − 0.012 (− 0.078, 0.054) 0.716 0.000 (− 0.015, 0.015) 0.983
 CRP, mg/L, mean (SD) − 0.020 (− 0.080, 0.039) 0.499 − 0.007 (− 0.061, 0.046) 0.785 − 0.005 (− 0.017, 0.008) 0.456
 TJC68 (n = 138), mean (SD) 0.074 (0.031, 0.117) 0.001 − 0.020 (− 0.067, 0.028) 0.409 0.059 (0.020, 0.098) 0.004 0.004 (− 0.038, 0.046) 0.852 0.009 (0.000, 0.018) 0.056 0.005 (− 0.006, 0.016) 0.373
 SJC66 (n = 138), mean (SD) 0.099 (− 0.375, 0.572) 0.680 − 0.009 (− 0.434, 0.417) 0.967 0.000 (− 0.096, 0.096) 0.996
 MASES, range 0–13, mean (SD) 0.301 (0.152, 0.450) 0.000 0.068 (− 0.092, 0.229) 0.400 0.294 (0.162, 0.427) 0.000 0.052 (− 0.089, 0.193) 0.466 0.030 (− 0.002, 0,061) 0.065 − 0.013 (− 0.052, 0.026) 0.504
PROs
 Pain, VAS 0–100 mm, mean (SD) 0.078 (0.061, 0.095) 0.000 0.031 (0.006, 0.056) 0.015 0.071 (0.056, 0.086) 0.000 0.025 (0.003, 0.047) 0.024 0.006 (0.002, 0.010) 0.005 − 0.006 (− 0.012, 0.001) 0.087
 Fatigue, NRS 0–10, mean (SD) 0.704 (0.557, 0.851) 0.000 0.434 (0.230, 0.638) 0.000 NA NA NA NA 0.101 (0.067, 0.135) 0.000 0.106 (0.054, 0.157) < 0.001
 Sleep disturbance, NRS 0–10, mean (SD) NA NA NA NA 0.568 (0.449, 0.686) 0.000 0.339 (0.183, 0.495) < 0.001 0.062 (0.030, 0.095) 0.000 0.007 (− 0.040, 0.055) 0.759
 Depression, range 1–3, mean (SD) 1.522 (0.722, 2.322) 0.000 − 1.180 (− 0.902, 0.542) 0.622 1.992 (1.317, 2.667) 0.000 1.242 (0.655, 1.830) < 0.001 NA NA NA NA
 MHAQ, range 0–3, mean (SD) 4.153 (3.117, 5.188) 0.000 1.753 (0.225, 3.281) 0.025 3.331 (2.359, 4.304) 0.000 0.085 (− 1.287, 1.457) 0.902 0.392 (0.147, 0.637) 0.002 0.177 (− 0.171, 0.525) 0.316
 Exercise ≥ 1 time per week, number (%) − 1.060 (− 2.039, − 0.080) 0.034 − 0.710 (− 1.481, 0.060) 0.070 − 0.523 (− 1.413, 0.366) 0.247 − 0.109 (− 0.310, 0.092) 0.285
Comorbidity
 Comorbidities (n = 136), (range 0–8) mean (SD) 0.367 (− 0.164, 0.897) 0.174 − 0.074 (− 0.557, 0.410) 0.763 0.436 (− 0.038, 0.910) 0.071 0.001 (− 0.424, 0.427) 0.995 0.049 (− 0.059, 0.157) 0.369
Skin
 PASI, range 0–72 (n = 136), mean (SD) 0.106 (− 0.029, 0.241) 0.121 0.044 (− 0.074, 0.161) 0.463 0.060 (− 0.062, 0.182) 0.331 − 0.013 (− 0.040, 0.015) 0.354
 Skin itching, (n = 121) 1.253 (0.040, 2.467) 0.043 − 0.858 (− 1.893, 0.177) 0.103 1.905 (0.860, 2.950) 0.000 0.776 (− 0.094, 1.647) 0.080 0.045 (− 0.201, 0.291) 0.719
Treatment
 Current bDMARD, number (%) (n = 136) 0.255 (− 0.806, 1.316) 0.635   0.366 (− 0.583, 1.315) 0.447 0.109 (− 1.106, 0.323) 0.318
 Current csDMARD, number (%) − 0.101 (− 1.107, 0.904) 0.842   0.415 (− 0.485, 1.316) 0.363 − 0.044 (− 0.247, 0.160) 0.672
  1. Only variables with a p value < 0.20 in the univariate analysis were tested in the multivariate analysis, which was adjusted for age, gender, and BMI independent of their significance in the univariate analyses. Apart from age, gender, and BMI, only variables with at p value < 0.2 are displayed in the multivariate analysis
  2. NRS numbering rating scale, CI confidence interval, SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, PsA psoriatic arthritis, CRP C-reactive protein, TJC tender joint count, SJC swollen joint count, MASES Maastricht Ankylosing Spondylitis Enthesitis Score, VAS visual analogue scale, MHAQ Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire, PASI Psoriasis Area Severity Index, bDMARD biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug, csDMARD conventional synthetic DMARD