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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (N = 1776) stratified by the number of comorbidities

From: The prevalence and impact of comorbidities on patients with axial spondyloarthritis: results from a nationwide population-based study

  Total, N = 1776 (100%) Number of comorbidities* P value
0, N = 315 (17%) 1–2, N = 741 (41%) 3–4, N = 439 (25%) ≥ 5, N = 281
(17%)
Female sex (%) 46.4 38.6 49.2 49.1 43.0 0.0046
Age, years (mean ± SEM) 56.1 ± 0.1 45.4 ± 0.6 53.8 ± 0.4 60.3 ± 0.5 65.9 ± 0.5 < 0.0001
Symptom duration, years (mean ± SEM) 25.3 ± 0.3 18.9 ± 0.7 24.3 ± 0.5 28.2 ± 0.7 30.2 ± 0.9 < 0.0001
Duration since diagnosis, years (mean ± SEM) 19.5 ± 0.3 14.2 ± 0.6 18.4 ± 0.5 22.0 ± 0.6 24.1 ± 0.9 < 0.0001
In rheumatologic care (%) 45.6 51.6 44.1 44.6 44.5 0.1578
HLA-B27-positive (%) 86.1 87.8 88.7 83.2 79.8 0.0211
Psoriasis (ever, %) 15.0 8.5 15.7 15.4 19.0 0.0047
IBD (ever, %) 8.8 10.8 6.6 9.8 10.8 0.0618
Uveitis (ever, %) 27.3 24.7 27.7 29.1 26.6 0.6134
BASDAI, 0–10 (mean ± SEM) 4.5 ± 0.0 3.7 ± 0.1 4.3 ± 0.1 4.8 ± 0.1 5.2 ± 0.1 < 0.0001
BASFI, 0–10 (mean ± SEM) 4.1 ± 0.1 2.7 ± 0.1 3.7 ± 0.1 4.7 ± 0.1 5.6 ± 0.1 < 0.0001
Body mass index, kg/m2 (mean ± SEM) 26.9 ± 0.1 25.2 ± 0.2 26.2 ± 0.2 28.2 ± 0.2 28.8 ± 0.3 < 0.0001
WHO-5 Well-being Index, 0–100 (mean ± SEM) 44.7 ± 0.5 47.4 ± 1.2 45.5 ± 0.8 44.5 ± 1.1 40.2 ± 1.3 0.0005
Smoking (current, %) 18.6 22.1 21.0 15.3 13.9 0.0076
Suffering from stress (%) 39.3 46.2 43.3 37.3 25.2 < 0.0001
Lack of exercise (%) 24.3 20.5 20.8 28.8 30.8 0.0004
Full-time employment (%) 31.1 54.3 38.5 19.8 6.2 < 0.0001
Household income, € (%)
 < 1500 26.2 18.1 25.1 24.1 40.2 < 0.0001
 1500–3200 55.9 54.3 54.6 60.0 54.2
 > 3200 17.9 27.6 20.4 15.8 5.6
Pharmacotherapy (%) 77.9 75.5 75.8 79.2 83.4 0.0452
 NSAIDs 59.0 56.7 60.5 60.5 55.3 0.3413
 Non-opioid analgesics 22.5 16.7 17.8 28.1 31.5 < 0.0001
 Opioids 16.0 8.9 12.3 17.3 30.5 < 0.0001
 bDMARDs 16.9 26.0 19.7 11.8 8.6 < 0.0001
 csDMARDs 13.6 13.5 14.5 13.1 12.2 0.7783
 Steroids 19.7 12.1 17.9 23.7 25.8 < 0.0001
Physical therapy (%) 52.1 46.6 45.5 57.9 65.2 < 0.0001
Number of pharmaceuticals (mean ± SEM) 7.2 ± 0.1 3.7 ± 0.1 5.9 ± 0.1 8.2 ± 0.2 11.9 ± 0.3 < 0.0001
Number of pharmaceuticals** (mean ± SEM) 5.6 ± 0.1 2.5 ± 0.1 4.3 ± 0.1 6.4 ± 0.2 9.9 ± 0.3 < 0.0001
  1. *Defined by the Elixhauser coding algorithms excluding rheumatoid arthritis/collagen vascular diseases and including osteoporosis and fibromyalgia. **excluding axSpA-related medication. P values < 0.05 are shown in bold
  2. AxSpA axial spondyloarthritis, BASDAI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, BASFI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, bDMARDs biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, csDMARDs conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, IBD inflammatory bowel disease, NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, SEM standard error of the mean
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