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Table 4 Association of comorbidity with disease activity and functional impairment in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (N = 1776)

From: The prevalence and impact of comorbidities on patients with axial spondyloarthritis: results from a nationwide population-based study

  Reference Univariable analyses Multivariable analyses
Model 1: number of comorbidities Model 2: comorbidities taken separately
BASDAI, β (95% CI) BASFI, β (95% CI) BASDAI, β (95% CI) BASFI, β (95% CI) BASDAI, β (95% CI) BASFI, β (95% CI)
Number of comorbidities Per unit 0.23 (0.18, 0.27) 0.45 (0.40, 0.51) 0.17 (0.09, 0.24) 0.24 (0.15, 0.32)   
Depression Not present 1.14 (0.93, 1.35) 1.12 (0.85, 1.38)    0.66 (0.41, 0.92) 0.70 (0.40, 0.99)
Chronic pulmonary disease Not present 0.46 (0.22, 0.69) 0.79 (0.50, 1.08)    0.38 (0.10, 0.67) 0.34 (0.01, 0.66)
Hypertension (complicated) Not present 0.41 (0.04, 0.77) 1.08 (0.60, 1.56)     0.69 (0.02, 1.35)
Hypertension (uncomplicated) Not present 0.42 (0.23, 0.61) 1.15 (0.92, 1.39)     0.57 (0.25, 0.88)
Age Per 10 years 0.12 (0.05, 0.18) 0.60 (0.52, 0.67) 0.06 (− 0.03, 0.16) 0.41 (0.31, 0.52) 0.14 (0.05, 0.23) 0.45 (0.34, 0.55)
Sex Male 0.68 (0.49, 0.87) − 0.09 (− 0.33, 0.14) 0.56 (0.33, 0.79) − 0.01 (− 0.27, 0.26) 0.53 (0.31, 0.76) 0.00 (− 0.27, 0.26)
In rheumatologic care No 0.46 (0.26, 0.65) 0.41 (0.17, 0.65)   0.45 (0.18, 0.73)   0.51 (0.24, 0.78)
Body mass index Per unit 0.05 (0.03, 0.07) 0.13 (0.11, 0.16) 0.03 (0.00, 0.06) 0.08 (0.04, 0.11) 0.04 (0.01, 0.06) 0.08 (0.05, 0.11)
Smoking (current) No 0.23 (− 0.02, 0.48) 0.17 (− 0.13, 0.46) 0.38 (0.09, 0.66) 0.58 (0.28, 0.88) 0.34 (0.06, 0.62) 0.56 (0.27, 0.86)
Suffering from stress No 0.70 (0.51, 0.89) − 0.28 (− 0.52, − 0.04) 0.59 (0.35, 0.82)   0.54 (0.31, 0.77)  
Lack of exercise No 0.20 (− 0.02, 0.41) 0.85 (0.57, 1.13)   0.41 (0.10, 0.72)   0.44 (0.12, 0.75)
Household income (€)
 < 1500 > 3200 1.17 (0.89, 1.45) 1.85 (1.50, 2.20) 0.70 (0.36, 1.05) 1.11 (0.71, 1.51) 0.65 (0.30, 1.00) 1.10 (0.71, 1.50)
 1500–3200 > 3200 0.72 (0.48, 0.97) 1.02 (0.73, 1.31) 0.44 (0.18, 0.71) 0.48 (0.20, 0.77) 0.41 (0.15, 0.68) 0.46 (0.17, 0.75)
NSAIDs No 0.77 (0.57, 0.96) 0.57 (0.33, 0.82) 0.47 (0.22, 0.72)   0.43 (0.19, 0.68)  
bDMARDs No − 0.36 (− 0.61, − 0.11) − 0.20 (− 0.50, 0.10) − 0.31 (− 0.60, − 0.02)   − 0.33 (− 0.61, − 0.04)  
Non-opioid analgesics No 0.97 (0.75, 1.19) 1.28 (1.00, 1.56) 0.46 (0.18, 0.74) 0.46 (0.13, 0.79) 0.43 (0.16, 0.71) 0.46 (0.13, 0.79)
Opioids No 1.49 (1.25, 1.73) 2.31 (2.01, 2.61) 0.88 (0.54, 1.22) 1.41 (1.01, 1.82) 0.85 (0.52, 1.18) 1.46 (1.06, 1.86)
Steroids No 0.68 (0.45, 0.92) 0.84 (0.54, 1.15)   0.35 (0.01, 0.68) 0.31 (0.02, 0.59) 0.39 (0.05, 0.72)
Physical therapy No 0.71 (0.52, 0.90) 0.77 (0.53, 1.00) 0.34 (0.11, 0.58) 0.41 (0.14, 0.67) 0.35 (0.11, 0.58) 0.40 (0.14, 0.67)
  1. Variables tested with backward selection: number of comorbidities (only model 1), comorbidities with prevalence > 5% taken separately (only model 2), age, sex, symptom duration, in rheumatologic care, HLA-B27, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, uveitis, body mass index, lack of exercise, smoking, suffering from stress, household income, NSAIDs, bDMARDs, non-opioid analgesics, opioids, csDMARDs, steroids, number of pharmaceuticals (excluding axSpA-related medication), and physical therapy. Variables not included in the above table were not chosen by the backward selection in any multivariable model. Age and sex were always included in the models
  2. AxSpA axial spondyloarthritis, BASDAI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, BASFI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, bDMARDs biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
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