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Table 2 Multivariable GEE analysis exploring the effect of infliximab on CES-D scores, BASDAI models

From: Infliximab treatment reduces depressive symptoms in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: an ancillary study to a randomized controlled trial (ASSERT)

Outcome = CES-D (absolute score) Model 1A Model 1B* Model 1C* Model 1D*
B 95% CI p B 95% CI p B 95% CI p B 95% CI p
 Group, IFX − 0.39 − 2.01 to 1.23 0.63 − 0.35 − 2.70 to 2.01 0.77 − 0.80 − 2.85 to 1.25 0.44 − 0.24 − 2.91 to 2.42 0.86
 Baseline CES-D, score 0.78 0.46 to 1.11 < 0.01 0.68 0.45 to 0.91 < 0.01 0.77 0.43 to 1.11 < 0.01 0.68 0.45 to 0.92 < 0.01
 Time, 6 weeks − 2.30 − 8.09 to 3.49 0.44 − 1.39 − 5.77 to 2.98 0.53 − 2.31 − 8.14 to 3.53 0.44 − 1.37 − 5.75 to 3.00 0.54
 Time, 12 weeks − 0.42 − 5.63 to 4.78 0.87 − 1.16 − 6.26 to 3.95 0.66 − 0.58 − 5.88 to 4.72 0.83 − 1.13 − 6.27 to 4.00 0.67
 Time, 24 weeks 0.62 − 4.69 to 5.92 0.82 0.71 − 4.43 to 5.86 0.79 0.42 − 4.92 to 5.75 0.88 0.77 − 4.48 to 6.02 0.77
 Group*time (6 weeks) − 2.94 − 9.23 to 3.35 0.36 − 0.43 − 5.71 to 4.85 0.87 − 2.24 − 8.92 to 4.44 0.51 − 0.57 − 6.02 to 4.89 0.84
 Group*time (12 weeks) − 4.22 − 10.32 to 1.87 0.17 0.44 − 6.23 to 7.11 0.90 − 3.27 − 9.69 to 3.16 0.32 0.27 − 6.44 to 6.99 0.94
 Group*time (24 weeks) − 6.63 − 13.35 to 0.09 0.05 − 2.66 − 9.44 to 4.11 0.44 − 5.71 − 12.53 to 1.12 0.10 − 2.83 − 9.68 to 4.01 0.42
 BASDAI 1.34 0.53 to 2.15 < 0.01 1.36 0.50 to 2.23 < 0.01
 CRP, mg/L 0.04 − 0.02 to 0.10 0.24 − 0.01 − 0.07 to 0.05 0.76
Outcome = CES-D (increased vs. normal) Model 2A Model 2B* Model 2C* Model 2D*
OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p
 Group, IFX 1.17 0.34 to 4.03 0.80 1.22 0.35 to 4.26 0.75 1.02 0.26 to 3.96 0.98 1.16 0.30 to 4.55 0.83
 Baseline CES-D, increased 8.18 2.06 to 32.44 < 0.01 9.33 2.09 to 41.77 < 0.01 7.22 1.88 to 27.83 < 0.01 8.73 1.93 to 39.43 < 0.01
 Time, 6 weeks 1.09 0.04 to 27.97 0.96 1.35 0.08 to 23.82 0.84 1.11 0.04 to 31.26 0.95 1.34 0.07 to 25.60 0.85
 Time, 12 weeks 1.34 0.13 to 14.07 0.81 1.18 0.13 to 11.11 0.88 1.29 0.11 to 15.06 0.84 1.18 0.12 to 11.48 0.88
 Time, 24 weeks 4.18 0.26 to 67.75 0.31 4.70 0.29 to 75.59 0.27 3.95 0.24 to 65.05 0.34 4.58 0.28 to 76.18 0.29
 Group*time (6 weeks) 0.17 0.00 to 6.66 0.35 0.26 0.01 to 7.66 0.43 0.23 0.01 to 10.97 0.46 0.28 0.01 to 10.01 0.49
 Group*time (12 weeks) 0.16 0.01 to 2.89 0.22 0.36 0.02 to 8.55 0.53 0.25 0.01 to 5.92 0.39 0.40 0.01 to 11.01 0.59
 Group*time (24 weeks) 0.02 0.00 to 0.72 0.03 0.03 0.00 to 1.32 0.07 0.03 0.00 to 1.30 0.07 0.03 0.00 to 1.80 0.09
 BASDAI 1.35 0.94 to 1.93 0.10 1.31 0.89 to 1.95 0.17
 CRP, mg/L 1.02 0.99 to 1.05 0.21 1.01 0.97 to 1.04 0.67
  1. CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CRP C-reactive protein, 95% CI 95% confidence interval, IFX infliximab, BASDAI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, OR odds ratio
  2. *Model B is an extension of model A, with the addition of BASDAI as covariable. Model C is an extension of model A, with the addition of CRP as covariable. Model D is an extension of model A, with the addition of both BASDAI and CRP as covariables
  3. Increased CES-D defined as a score ≥ 16, indicating possible depression
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