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Table 3 Multivariable GEE analysis exploring the effect of infliximab on CES-D scores, BASFI models

From: Infliximab treatment reduces depressive symptoms in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: an ancillary study to a randomized controlled trial (ASSERT)

Outcome = CES-D (absolute score)   Model 3A    Model 3B*    Model 3C*    Model 3D*  
B 95% CI p B 95% CI p B 95% CI p B 95% CI p
 Group, IFX − 0.39 − 2.01 to 1.23 0.63 0.87 − 1.97 to 3.71 0.55 − 0.80 − 2.85 to 1.25 0.44 1.16 − 1.87 to 4.19 0.45
 Baseline CES-D, score 0.78 0.46 to 1.11 < 0.01 0.74 0.53 to 0.95 < 0.01 0.77 0.43 to 1.11 < 0.01 0.75 0.53 to 0.96 < 0.01
 Time, 6 weeks − 2.30 − 8.09 to 3.49 0.44 − 1.62 − 6.31 to 3.07 0.50 − 2.31 − 8.14 to 3.53 0.44 − 1.59 − 6.22 to 3.04 0.50
 Time, 12 weeks − 0.42 − 5.63 to 4.78 0.87 0.43 − 4.01 to 4.87 0.85 − 0.58 − 5.88 to 4.72 0.83 0.55 − 3.87 to 4.96 0.81
 Time, 24 weeks 0.62 − 4.69 to 5.92 0.82 0.92 − 3.85 to 5.70 0.71 0.42 − 4.92 to 5.75 0.88 1.05 − 3.75 to 5.86 0.67
 Group*time (6 weeks) − 2.94 − 9.23 to 3.35 0.36 − 0.84 − 6.15 to 4.46 0.75 − 2.24 − 8.92 to 4.44 0.51 − 1.20 − 6.53 to 4.14 0.66
 Group*time (12 weeks) − 4.22 − 10.32 to 1.87 0.17 − 2.19 − 7.50 to 3.12 0.42 − 3.27 − 9.69 to 3.16 0.32 − 2.69 − 7.84 to 2.47 0.31
 Group*time (24 weeks) − 6.63 − 13.35 to 0.09 0.05 − 3.89 − 10.04 to 2.27 0.22 − 5.71 − 12.53 to 1.12 0.10 − 4.34 − 10.38 to 1.69 0.16
 BASFI 1.56 0.81 to 2.31 < 0.01 1.61 0.80 to 2.42 < 0.01
 CRP, mg/L 0.04 − 0.02 to 0.10 0.24 − 0.02 − 0.08 to 0.04 0.46
Outcome = CES-D (increased vs. normal)   Model 4A    Model 4B*    Model 4C*    Model 4D*  
OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p
 Group, IFX 1.17 0.34 to 4.03 0.80 1.59 0.42 to 6.06 0.50 1.02 0.26 to 3.96 0.98 1.60 0.37 to 6.97 0.53
 Baseline CES-D, increased 8.18 2.06 to 32.44 < 0.01 12.57 2.11 to 74.95 < 0.01 7.22 1.88 to 27.83 < 0.01 12.68 1.94 to 82.94 < 0.01
 Time, 6 weeks 1.09 0.04 to 27.97 0.96 1.43 0.07 to 29.08 0.82 1.11 0.04 to 31.26 0.95 1.43 0.07 to 28.96 0.82
 Time, 12 weeks 1.34 0.13 to 14.07 0.81 1.76 0.25 to 12.46 0.57 1.29 0.11 to 15.06 0.84 1.77 0.25 to 12.58 0.57
 Time, 24 weeks 4.18 0.26 to 67.75 0.31 4.73 0.38 to 58.18 0.23 3.95 0.24 to 65.05 0.34 4.74 0.37 to 60.52 0.23
 Group*time (6 weeks) 0.17 0.00 to 6.66 0.35 0.21 0.01 to 7.10 0.38 0.23 0.01 to 10.97 0.46 0.21 0.01 to 7.91 0.40
 Group*time (12 weeks) 0.16 0.01 to 2.89 0.22 0.21 0.01 to 3.18 0.26 0.25 0.01 to 5.92 0.39 0.21 0.01 to 4.14 0.30
 Group*time (24 weeks) 0.02 0.00 to 0.72 0.03 0.02 0.00 to 0.79 0.04 0.03 0.00 to 1.30 0.07 0.02 0.00 to 1.13 0.06
 BASFI 1.49 1.07 to 2.09 0.02 1.50 1.02 to 2.21 0.04
 CRP, mg/L 1.02 0.99 to 1.05 0.21 1.00 0.97 to 1.03 0.96
  1. CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CRP C-reactive protein, 95% CI 95% confidence interval, IFX infliximab, BASFI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, OR odds ratio
  2. *Model B is an extension of model A, with the addition of BASFI as covariable. Model C is an extension of model A, with the addition of CRP as covariable. Model D is an extension of model A, with the addition of both BASFI and CRP as covariables
  3. Increased CES-D defined as a score ≥ 16, indicating possible depression
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