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Table 1 Characteristics of the individuals in the MPP cohort overall and for the five identified clusters of gout-related comorbidities

From: The absolute risk of gout by clusters of gout-associated comorbidities and lifestyle factors—30 years follow-up of the Malmö Preventive Project

Characteristics All C1: few comorbidities C2: CKD/kidney dysfunction C3: CVD and lifestyle C4: obesity and dyslipidemia C5: DM and hypertension
Total number 22,057 16,063 750 528 3673 1043
Demographics
Male, n (%) 14,561 (66.01) 10,425 (64.90) 420 (56.00) 358 (67.80) 2769 (75.38) 589 (56.47)
Age (years) 46.81 ± 5.54 46.21 ± 5.88 51.75 ± 5.67 48.66 ± 2.51 47.47 ± 4.34 48.54 ± 5.31
BMI 24.57 ± 3.53 23.47 ± 3.22 24.50 ± 2.87 23.00 ± 4.18 25.91 ± 4.01 25.07 ± 4.23
Comorbidities
History of kidney stones 1151 (5.26) 780 (4.90) 52 (7.03) 36 (6.89) 205 (5.61) 78 (7.66)
Obesity 1599 (7.24) 0 (0) 66 (8.80) 60 (11.36) 1250 (34.03) 223 (21.38)
Kidney dysfunction 876 (3.97) 0 (0) 750 (100) 35 (6.62) 0 (0) 91 (8.72)
Diabetes mellitus 537 (2.43) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 537 (51.48)
Hypertension 4081 (18.50) 2255 (14.03) 204 (27.20) 184 (34.84) 879 (23.93) 559 (53.59)
CVD 631 (2.86) 0 (0) 0 (0) 528 (100) 0 (0) 103 (9.87)
Hypercholesterolemia 2185 (9.91) 0 (0) 91 (12.13) 74 (14.01) 1888 (51.40) 132 (12.65)
Hypertriglyceridemia 1459 (6.61) 0 (0) 49 (6.53) 56 (10.61) 1166 (31.74) 188 (18.02)
Dyslipidemia 3217 (14.58) 0 (0) 124 (16.53) 114 (21.59) 2712 (73.84) 267 (25.59)
Abnormal liver enzymes 1718 (7.78) 934 (5.81) 54 (7.20) 51 (9.65) 507 (13.80) 172 (16.49)
Pulmonary dysfunction 3451 (15.64) 2425 (15.09) 128 (17.06) 119 (22.53) 595 (16.19) 184 (17.64)
Lifestyle/medication
Smoking 13,083 (59.31) 9295 (57.86) 406 (54.13) 392 (74.24) 2380 (64.79) 610 (58.48)
Alcohol risk behavior 4538 (29.79) 3136 (28.02) 116 (25.27) 138 (40.82) 943 (36.27) 205 (31.88)
Use of diuretics 541 (2.45) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 541 (51.87)
  1. The characteristics are presented as mean ± standard deviation for continuous variables and number (percentages) for categorical variables. C1 to C5 represent cluster numbers 1 to 5. n total number, CKD chronic kidney disease, CVD cardiovascular disease, DM diabetes mellitus