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Table 3 Within clusters’ cumulative incidence for various gout-related comorbidities for gout incident cases during follow-up (n = 910)

From: The absolute risk of gout by clusters of gout-associated comorbidities and lifestyle factors—30 years follow-up of the Malmö Preventive Project

Cluster number C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
Gout incident cases (n) 551 53 26 235 45
Diabetes (DM)
Baseline, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 19 (42.2)
Incident cases, n (%) 81 (14.7) 6 (11.3) 2 (7.7) 62 (26.4) 8 (17.8)
Total cases, n (%) 81 (14.7) 6 (11.3) 2 (7.7) 62 (26.4) 27 (60.0)
Follow-up time, mean ± SD* 28.45 ± 8.62 25.55 ± 8.81 21.31 ± 10.16 25.63 ± 9.14 17.73 ± 11.24
Obesity
Baseline, n (%) 0 (0) 7 (13.2) 3 (11.5) 93 (39.6) 17 (37.8)
Incident cases, n (%) 14 (2.5) 0 (0) 2 (7.7) 7 (3.0) 0 (0)
Total cases, n (%) 14 (2.5) 7 (13.2) 5 (19.2) 100 (42.5) 17 (37.8)
Follow-up time, mean ± SD* 29.22 ± 8.36 26.48 ± 8.64 22.22 ± 10.29 27.15 ± 9.01 23.46 ± 9.98
Dyslipidemia
Baseline, n (%) 0 (0) 11 (20.8) 6 (23.1) 113 (48.1) 15 (33.3)
Incident cases, n (%) 54 (9.8) 4 (7.5) 3 (11.5) 16 (6.8) 8 (17.8)
Total cases, n (%) 54 (9.8) 15 (28.3) 9 (34.6) 129 (54.8) 23 (51.1)
Follow-up time, mean ± SD* 29.28 ± 8.36 26.59 ± 8.53 22.26 ± 10.31 27.51 ± 8.88 23.86 ± 9.76
Hypertension
Baseline, n (%) 112 (20.3) 18 (34.0) 6 (23.1) 79 (33.6) 23 (51.1)
Incident cases, n (%) 201 (36.5) 14 (26.4) 10 (38.5) 75 (31.9) 11 (24.4)
Total cases, n (%) 313 (56.8) 32 (60.3) 16 (61.5) 154 (65.5) 34 (75.5)
Follow-up time, mean ± SD* 26.77 ± 8.62 23.28 ± 9.28 19.65 ± 9.83 24.19 ± 9.07 19.29 ± 9.64
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Baseline, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 26 (100) 0 (0) 4 (8.9)
Incident cases, n (%) 253 (45.9) 24 (45.3) NA 119 (50.6) 21 (46.7)
Total cases, n (%) 253 (45.9) 24 (45.3) 26 (100) 119 (50.6) 25 (55.5)
Follow-up time, mean ± SD* 27.27 ± 9.11 24.43 ± 9.15 18.01 ± 10.41 24.29 ± 9.71 20.98 ± 10.17
Kidney dysfunction and chronic kidney disease (CKD)
Baseline, n (%)^ 0 (0) 53 (100) 3 (11.5) 0 (0) 7 (15.6)
Incident cases, n (%) 107 (19.4) NA 4 (15.4) 49 (20.9) 14 (31.1)
Total cases, n (%) 107 (19.4) 53 (100) 7 (26.9) 49 (20.9) 21 (46.6)
Follow-up time, mean ± SD* 28.03 ± 9.06 24.89 ± 9.47 21.34 ± 10.25 26.22 ± 9.31 22.37 ± 9.90
Pulmonary dysfunction (PD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Baseline, n (%)^ 86 (15.6) 7 (13.2) 4 (15.4) 38 (16.2) 10 (22.2)
Incident cases, n (%) 37 (6.7) 4 (7.5) 1 (3.8) 19 (8.1) 5 (11.1)
Total cases, n (%) 123 (22.3) 11 (20.7) 5 (19.2) 57 (24.2) 15 (33.3)
Follow-up time, mean ± SD* 28.45 ± 8.89 25.85 ± 8.95 21.36 ± 10.47 26.69 ± 9.27 22.83 ± 10.11
Alcohol risk behavior (ALR) and diagnosed alcoholism (ALC)
ALR at baseline, n (%) 159 (28.9) 11 (20.8) 8 (30.8) 74 (31.5) 9 (20.0)
Incident cases with ALC, n (%) 2 (0.4) 1 (1.9) 0 (0) 2 (0.9) 1 (2.2)
Total cases, n (%) NA NA NA NA NA
Follow-up time, mean ± SD* 28.81 ± 9.02 26.37 ± 8.81 21.69 ± 10.81 27.06 ± 9.43 23.39 ± 10.16
  1. The characteristics are presented as mean ± standard deviation for continuous variables and number (percentages) for categorical variables. NA not applicable, n total number, SD standard deviation
  2. *Follow-up time is calculated in years
  3. ^Baseline kidney dysfunction is defined by an eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m2 while baseline pulmonary dysfunction is defined by a FEV1/FVC < 70% of predicted values