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Table 1 Baseline demographic and disease characteristics

From: Fluctuation in anti-cyclic citrullinated protein antibody level predicts relapse from remission in rheumatoid arthritis: KURAMA cohort

  Total (n = 1355) Change in ACPA titer level (maximum/minimum) P value
< 3 (n = 763) 3.1–5 (n = 297) > 5 (n = 295)
Age, years, mean (SD) 60.0 (13.8) 59.7 (14.5) 59.6 (13.3) 61.0 (12.2) 0.35
Female, n (%) 963 (71.1) 610 (80.0) 248 (83.5) 241 (81.7) 0.39
BMI, mean (SD) 21.7 (3.7) 21.7 (3.9) 21.7 (3.3) 21.7 (3.5) 0.99
Smoker (ever), n (%) 246 (18.2) 146 (19.1) 47 (15.8) 53 (18.0) 0.45
Disease duration, months, mean (SD) 1.8 (5.4) 1.8 (6.0) 1.8 (5.0) 1.6 (4.0) 0.85
Observational period (months), mean (SD) 4.6 (2.4) 45.7 (28.7) 65.5 (22.6) 68.7 (22.9) < 0.001
Number of ACPA measurements, mean (SD) 5.3 (2.6) 4.6 (2.4) 6.1 (2.3) 6.5 (2.5) < 0.001
RF (%) 88.1 86.7 89.9 89.9 0.37
RF, IU/ml, mean (SD) 150.4 (242.5) 155.1 (260.4) 148.4 (238.8) 140.6 (196.0) 0.77
ACPA (max), U/ml, mean (SD) 392.8 (579.7) 290.9 (365.0) 435.5 (499.5) 613.3 (934.6) < 0.001
ACPA (min), U/ml, mean (SD) 137.8 (204.9) 170.1 (246.2) 112.6 (123.7) 71.9 (112.1) < 0.001
ESR, mm/h, mean (SD) 31.8 (26.4) 29.7 (25.6) 33.0 (26.1) 35.7 (28.2) < 0.05
CRP, mg/L, mean (SD) 12.4 (24.1) 10.5 (19.6) 11.3 (19.1) 18.3 (35.2) < 0.001
CDAI, mean (SD) 11.7 (9.4) 11.2 (9.3) 11.8 (9.1) 12.9 (9.8) 0.06
SDAI, mean (SD) 13.2 (10.9) 12.5 (10.5) 13.1 (10.3) 14.9 (12.3) 0.05
DAS28 (ESR), mean (SD) 3.7 (1.4) 3.6 (1.4) 3.8 (1.4) 4.0 (1.4) < 0.01
Tender joints, mean (SD) 2.4 (3.3) 2.3 (3.4) 2.4 (3.0) 2.6 (3.3) 0.1
Swollen joints, mean (SD) 2.5 (3.2) 2.5 (3.3) 2.4 (3.1) 2.7 (3.3) 0.23
MTX, n (%) 55 (4.1) 27 (2.0) 15 (5.1) 13 (4.4) 0.51
MTX, mg, mean (SD) 7.1 (2.8) 7.2 (2.5) 6.7 (3.3) 7.4 (3.2) 0.78
MTX (3 months) n (%) 859 (63.4) 477 (62.5) 201 (67.7) 181 (61.4) 0.21
MTX (3 months), mg, mean (SD) 8.2 (3.1) 8.1 (3.0) 8.1 (2.9) 8.3 (3.4) 0.72
Prednisolone, n (%) 30 (2.2) 16 (2.1) 7 (2.4) 7 (2.4) 0.95
Prednisolone, mg, mean (SD) 6.8 (8.6) 6.4 (8.7) 3.2 (2.3) 11.4 (11.3) 0.21
Prednisolone (3 months), n (%) 418 (30.8) 213 (27.9) 99 (33.3) 106 (35.9) < 0.05
Prednisolone (3 months), mg, mean (SD) 6.7 (11.5) 5.9 (8.7) 7.1 (14.1) 8.0 (13.5) 0.27
bDMARDs or tsDMARDs, n (%) 30 (2.2) 11 (1.4) 10 (3.4) 9 (3.1) 0.09
bDMARDs or tsDMARDs (3 months), n (%) 395 (29.2) 200 (26.2) 96 (32.3) 99 (33.6) < 0.05
  1. One-way analysis of variance for continuous variables; Kruskal–Wallis test for CDAI, SDAI and DAS28-ESR; Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables among the three groups
  2. bDMARD biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug, BMI body mass index, CDAI clinical disease activity index, CRP C-reactive protein, DAS28 Disease Activity Score 28-joint count, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, MTX methotrexate, RF rheumatoid factor, SD standard deviation, SDAI simplified disease activity index, tsDMARD targeted synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug