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Table 2 Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for comorbid conditions, individually and in combination, on modeled transition states, over the full follow-up period

From: Comorbid conditions and the transition among states of hip osteoarthritis and symptoms in a community-based study: a multi-state time-to-event model approach

Type of transitionIndividual comorbid conditionsCombinations of comorbid conditions
Obesity (vs no obesity)1DM (vs no DM)1CVD (vs no CVD)1Obesity and CVD (vs: no Obesity and no CVD)2Obesity and DM (vs: no Obesity and no DM)3CVD and DM (vs: no CVD and no DM)4
 n (vs n) for transitionsn (vs n) for transitions
 aHR (95% CI)aHR (95% CI)
Development of rHOA
 No rHOA/symptoms (A) to rHOA (B)82 (vs 116)39 (vs 159)69 (vs 129)16 (vs 75)12 (vs 103)6 (vs 103)
0.88 (0.65, 1.18)1.06 (0.68, 1.63)1.34 (0.97, 1.85)1.27 (0.78, 2.06)0.89 (0.51, 1.55)0.79 (0.34, 1.85)
 Symptoms only (C) to sxHOA (D)38 (vs 27)18 (vs 47)41 (vs 24)7 (vs 11)10 (vs 24)7 (vs 20)
1.46 (0.91, 2.36)1.49 (0.86, 2.59)1.07 (0.65, 1.78)1.41 (0.63, 3.12)2.38 (1.23, 4.63)2.25 (1.08, 4.70)
Development of symptoms
 No rHOA/symptoms (A) to symptoms only (C)159 (vs 133)64 (vs 225)108 (vs 181)29 (vs 82)19 (vs 112)8 (vs 144)
1.33 (1.01, 1.74)1.05 (0.71, 1.54)1.25 (0.92, 1.71)1.91 (1.21, 3.01)1.36 (0.84, 2.18)1.01 (0.50, 2.03)
 rHOA (B) to sxHOA (D)87 (vs 85)39 (vs 133)71 (vs101)17 (vs 48)15 (vs 71)6 (vs 81)
0.93 (0.63, 1.35)1.29 (0.78, 2.15)1.08 (0.71, 1.63)0.95 (0.52, 1.73)0.83 (0.43, 1.61)0.98 (0.38, 2.51)
Resolution of symptoms
 Symptoms only (C) to no rHOA/symptoms (A)164 (vs 137)67 (vs 234)107 (vs 194)34 (vs 85)26 (vs 115)14 (vs 151)
0.88 (0.67, 1.14)0.74 (0.51, 1.08)0.61 (0.45, 0.82)0.56 (0.36, 0.86)0.65 (0.41, 1.04)0.46 (0.25, 0.84)
 sxHOA (D) to rHOA (B)104 (vs 70)38 (vs 136)72 (vs 102)23 (vs 41)10 (vs 58)8 (vs 80)
0.85 (0.58, 1.23)0.64 (0.38, 1.08)0.74 (0.50, 1.09)0.62 (0.35, 1.10)0.35 (0.17, 0.71)0.44 (0.21, 0.94)
  1. 1Model includes effects for baseline values of birth year, study cohort, age, sex, race, and education and time-dependent values of obesity, DM, CVD, and hip injury
  2. 2Model includes effects for baseline values of birth year, study cohort, age, sex, race, and education and time-dependent values of hip injury, DM, group of obesity with no CVD, group of no obesity with CVD, and group of obesity with CVD
  3. 3Model includes effects for baseline values of birth year, study cohort, age, sex, race, and education and time-dependent values of hip injury, CVD, group of obesity with no DM, group of no obesity with DM, and group of obesity with DM
  4. 4Model includes effects for baseline values of birth year, study cohort, age, sex, race, and education and time-dependent values of hip injury, obesity, group of CVD with no DM, group of no CVD with DM, and group of CVD with DM
  5. Italics indicate statistical significance (i.e., the 95% CI excludes 1)