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Table 2 Disease, activity, and periodontal characteristics with respect to anti-CCP antibodies

From: Association between periodontitis and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a cross-sectional study

 Anti-CCP negative (N = 55)Anti-CCP positive (N = 109)p valueTotal
(N = 164)
Median time evolution (P25;P75) years7.3 (2.0; 12.0)6.6 (2.5; 11.8)0.8526.8 (2.4; 11.9)
Early RA (less than 2 years)14 (26%)23 (21%)0.52937 (23%)
Established RA41 (75%)88 (81%)0.361129 (79%)
Rheumatoid factor
 Seropositive25 (46%)95 (87%)< 0.001120 (73%)
RF titers (I.U./mL)63.0 (90.48)234.5 (392.73)< 0.001177.33 (334.32)
 Low (<  90)38 (72%)43 (41%) 81 (51%)
 Moderate (91–300)14 (26%)40 (38%) 54 (34%)
 High (> 300)1 (2%)23 (22%) 24 (15%)
Level of activity
 DAS28 (SD)3.47 (1.31)3.98 (1.34)0.0233.81 (1.35)
 DAS28-CRP (SD)2.95 (1.15)3.30 (1.22)0.0693.19 (1.21)
 SDAI (SD)12.16 (8.97)15.77 (11.63)0.04514.56 (10.92)
 CDAI (SD)10.92 (10.37)13.65 (10.51)0.11612.73 (10.51)
Disease activity categories  0.122 
 Remission16 (29%)20 (17%) 34 (21%)
 Low12 (22%)21 (19%) 33 (20%)
 Moderate23 (42%)51 (47%) 74 (45%)
 High4 (7%)19 (17%) 23 (14%)
Glucocorticoid therapy  0.700 
 No glucocorticoids29 (53%)54 (49%) 83 (51%)
 Glucocorticoids26 (47%)55 (51%) 81 (49%)
 Current dosage GC (SD) (mg/d)2.84 (4.50)3.19 (4.39)0.6363.07 (4.42)
 Current dosage GC  0.239 
  Low < 7.549 (89%)93 (85%) 142 (86%)
  Moderate 7.5–204 (7%)15 (14%) 19 (12%)
  High > 202 (4%)1 (1%) 3 (2%)
Type of RA therapy  0.577 
 No treatment4 (7%)6 (6%) 10 (6%)
 sDMARDs25 (46%)62 (57%) 87 (53%)
 ≥ 2 sDMARDs19 (34%)31 (28%) 50 (31%)
 bDMARDs7 (13%)10 (9%) 17 (10%)
Periodontitis*  0.276 
 Level 04 (4%) 4 (3%)
 Level 131 (56%)53 (49%) 84 (51%)
 Level 224 (44%)52 (48%) 76 (46%)
Periodontitis**  0.422 
 No2 (2%) 2 (1%)
 Stage I8 (15%)18 (17%) 26 (16%)
 Stage II21 (38%)33 (30%) 54 (33%)
 Stage III16 (29%)25 (23%) 41 (25%)
 Stage IV10 (18%)31 (28%) 41 (25%)
 Stages III+IV26 (47%)56 (51%)0.37082 (50%)
Mean PI22.4 (13.3)3.01 (19.7)0.00128.1 (18.2)
Mean PPD2.99 (0.48)3.16 (0.70)0.0693.10 (0.64)
CAL3.72 (0.85)4.16 (1.43)0.0154.01 (1.28)
Tooth Loss***5.89 (5.06)6.47 (5.53)0.5166.27 (5.37)
N° PPD ≥ 5 mm11.64 (11.02)16.93 (19.63)0.02915.15 (17.37)
% PPD ≥ 5 mm0.09 (0.09)0.14 (0.16)0.0140.12 (0.15)
% BoP0.58 (0.19)0.65 (0.24)0.0550.63 (0.23)
  1. Data represent numbers, percentages, mean (SD), or median (P25;P75)
  2. Anti-CCP anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide, bDMARD biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, CAL clinical attachment level, CDAI Clinical Disease Activity Index, CRP C-reactive protein, DAS28 28-joint Disease Activity Score with ESR, DAS28-CRP 28-joint Disease Activity Score with CRP, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, GC glucocorticoids, N° PPD ≥ 5 mm number of pockets ≥ 5 mm, PI plaque index, PPD probing pocket depth, RA rheumatoid arthritis, RF rheumatoid factor, SDAI simplified disease activity index, SD standard deviation, sDMARDs synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, % BoP percentage of sites with bleeding on probing, %PPD ≥ 5 mm: percentage of pockets ≥ 5 mm
  3. *Levels of periodontitis according to Tonetti’s classification (2005)
  4. **Levels of periodontitis according to Tonetti’s classification (2018)
  5. ***Tooth Loss: number of missing teeth