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Table 2 Meta-analysis results for included studies of the relationship between risk factors and mortality in SLE-associated DAH patients

From: Risk factors for mortality of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variables No. of studies Number of enrolled episodes Effects model I2 (%) OR/SMD (95%CI) P values Relationship Publication bias (P value of Begg’s test)
Demographic and clinical characteristics
 Age 7 243 Fixed 0.0% 0.35 (0.08, 0.61) 0.010 Increased risks None (1.000)
 Female 4 189 Fixed 42.6% 0.69 (0.31, 1.54) 0.369 No association None (0.734)
 Disease duration 6 226 Fixed 0.0% 0.28 (0.01, 0.55) 0.042 Increased risks None (0.260)
 Lupus nephritis 3 140 Random 58.4% 5.45 (0.52, 56.95) 0.160 No association None (0.296)
 NPSLE 3 124 Fixed 42.2% 0.96 (0.43, 2.15) 0.920 No association None (1.000)
Laboratory data and disease activity
 Platelet 6 219 Random 69.1% − 0.29 (− 0.86, 0.29) 0.328 No association None (0.260)
 Drop of hemoglobin 5 202 Random 57.5% 0.34 (− 0.17, 0.85) 0.190 No association None (0.806)
 C3 3 132 Random 77.0% 0.48 (− 0.51, 1.46) 0.340 No association None (1.000)
 SLEDAI 6 186 Random 76.9% 0.24 (− 0.52, 0.99) 0.540 No association None (1.000)
Comorbidity and treatment
 Infection 6 223 Fixed 37.5% 2.77 (1.55, 4.95) 0.001 Increased risks None (0.260)
 CTX treatment 6 224 Random 75.5% 0.74 (0.16, 3.41) 0.700 No association None (1.000)
 IVIG treatment 3 175 Random 61.2% 1.28 (0.24, 6.87) 0.780 No association None (0.296)
 Plasmapheresis 5 167 Fixed 14.6% 1.96 (1.04, 3.70) 0.038 Increased risks None (0.806)
 Mechanical ventilation 8 262 Fixed 23.3% 6.11 (3.27, 11.39) < 0.0001 Increased risks None (1.000)
  1. SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, DAH diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, OR odds ratios, SMD standardized mean difference, NPSLE neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus, C3 complement 3, SLEDAI systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index, CTX cyclophosphamide, IVIG intravenous immunoglobulin