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Table 1 Demographics of SSc patients and controls vis-à-vis comorbidities, analytical, and disease-related data

From: HDL cholesterol efflux capacity and lipid profile in patients with systemic sclerosis

  Controls (n = 115) SSc patients (n = 73) p
Demographics
 Female, n (%) 107 (93) 68 (93) 0.98
 Age, years 60 ± 6 59 ± 1 0.40
 BMI, mg/cm2 28 ± 5 29 ± 6 0.38
 Waist circumference, cm 91 ± 14 96 ± 14 0.042
 Systolic pressure, mmHg 131 ± 15 133 ± 19 0.54
 Diastolic pressure, mmHg 84 ± 53 80 ± 13 0.53
Comorbidities, n(%)
 Hypertension 40 (35) 27 (37) 0.76
 Current smoking 19 (17) 14 (19) 0.61
 Diabetes 7 (6) 8 (11) 0.22
 BMI > 30 30 (26) 22 (30) 0.55
 Statins 13 (11) 25 (34) 0.000
Analytical data
 CRP, mg/dl 1.00 (1.00–3.00) 2.35 (1.15–4.29) 0.96
 Cholesterol, mg/dl 223 ± 38 198 ± 39 0.000
 Triglycerides, mg/dl 104 ± 52 153 ± 83 0.000
 HDL cholesterol, mg/dl 66 ± 18 49 ± 13 0.000
 LDL cholesterol, mg/dl 136 ± 35 111 ± 45 0.000
 LDL:HDL cholesterol ratio 2.23 ± 0.84 2.50 ± 1.62 0.23
 Non-HDL cholesterol, mg/dl 157 ± 37 149 ± 41 0.24
 Lipoprotein A, mg/dl 16 (9.32) 23 (12.65) 0.020
 Apolipoprotein A1, mg/dl 197 ± 34 168 ± 32 0.000
 Apolipoprotein B, mg/dl 102 ± 22 100 ± 26 0.67
 Apo B:Apo A ratio 0.54 ± 0.16 0.63 ± 0.30 0.024
 Atherogenic index 3.58 ± 0.98 4.37 ± 1.74 0.003
 Cholesterol efflux capacity, % 17 ± 11 8 ± 3 0.000
Systemic sclerosis-related data, n (%)
 Disease duration, years   9 (4–15)  
 Modified Rodnan skin score, units   3 (1–6)  
 Raynaud phenomenon   62 (85)  
 Digital ulcers   8 (11)  
 Calcinosis   7 (10)  
 Arthritis   15 (21)  
 Gastric reflux   29 (40)  
 Pathological esophageal manometry   40 (55)  
 Interstitial lung disease   16 (22)  
 Pulmonary hypertension   16 (22)  
 Anti-centromere antibody positivity   47 (64)  
 Anti-Scl70 antibody   10 (14)  
Treatments
 Current prednisone use   15 (21)  
 Prednisone, mg/day   5 (5–10)  
 DMARDs, n (%)   10 (14)  
 Azathioprine   4 (5)  
 Methotrexate   2 (3)  
 Mycophenolate   2 (3)  
 Hydroxychloroquine   2 (3)  
  1. Data represent patient numbers (%), means ± SD or median (IQR) when data were not normally distributed
  2. BMI body mass index; CRP C-reactive protein; DMARD disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug; HDL high-density lipoprotein; LDL low-density lipoprotein