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Table 2 Impact of diet-induced obesity and age on behavioral, molecular, and histological changes

From: Diet-induced obesity leads to behavioral indicators of pain preceding structural joint damage in wild-type mice

Parameter Bivariate (r) Multivariate (β, r2)
% Adipose Timepoint Diet (β) % Adipose (β) Timepoint (β) Whole model (r2)
Experimental (Obesogenic) Western
Behavioral
 Grip force − 0.41*** − 0.45*** − 21.96** − 6.23 0.4 − 0.841** 0.45***
 Mechanical sensitivity (Von Frey) − 0.42*** − 0.21* − 0.35 − 0.14 − 0.0007 − 0.006 0.26***
 Cold sensitivity (Acetone) 0.04 0.01 0.08
 Tail suspension
  Rearing 0.01 0.11 0.02
  Immobility 0.18 0.19 0.05
  Self-support − 0.22* − 0.30** 1.73 − 0.46 − 0.71 − 0.74* 0.10*
  Stretch 0.06 0.10 0.07
 Open field
  Locomotion − 0.49*** − 0.35*** − 1226 − 59.3 − 92.7 − 93.5*** 0.33***
  Rearing − 0.52*** − 0.40*** − 0.88 − 7.41 − 2.87* − 2.059*** 0.39***
Histopathology
 IVD degeneration (average Boos) 0.065 0.04 0.03
 Knee OA (cumulative OARSI) 0.07 0.08 0.05
 Synovitis 0.68*** 0.102 3.535 − 0.692 0.325* 0.063 0.478***
Neuro-inflammation
 Lower spinal cord
  GFAP 0.23     0.30
  IBA-1 0.23 0.06
  CGRP 0.024 0.18
 Upper spinal cord
  GFAP 0.21 0.08
  IBA-1 0.33 0.12
  CGRP 0.31 0.18
Systemic factors
 IL-1B 0.04 0.21 0.12
 IL-6 0.06 0.22 0.09
 IL-10 0.03 0.21 0.14
 IP-10 0.03 0.07 0.001
 KC 0.002 0.25 0.08
 MCP-1 0.23 0.04 0.18
 TNFa 0.03 0.30* 0.16
 VEGF 0.01 0.12 0.06
  1. Experimental/obesogenic diets include the high-fat and western diet
  2. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001