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Table 1 Clinical and laboratory findings in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and controls

From: Impact of disease activity on impaired glucose metabolism in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Clinical and laboratory features RA patients (N = 90) Controls (N = 37) P
Age (years) 52.4 ± 9.9 49.0 ± 7.5 ns
Females, n (%) 78/90 (86.7) 29/37 (78.4) ns
BMI (kg/m2) 25.7 ± 4.3 26.2 ± 4.3 ns
BMI > 25 kg/m2, n (%) 48/90 (53.3) 19/37 (51.4) ns
Hypertension, n (%) 28/90 (31.1) 8/37 (21.6) ns
WC (cm) 86.9 ± 12.3 86.2 ± 11.5 ns
Increased WCa, n (%) 34/90 (37.8) 10/37 (27.0) ns
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.84 ± 0.08 0.83 ± 0.08 ns
Metabolic syndrome, n (%) 19/90 (21.1) 5/37 (13.5) ns
ESR (mm/h) 29.5 (14–44) 16.0 (10.0–20.0) 0.000
CRP (mg/l) 5.5 (2.8–15) 2.5 (1.8–3.9) 0.000
IL-6 (pg/ml) 7.4 (2.0–18.8) 2.0 (2.0–2.4) 0.000
MMP3 (ng/ml) 185 (90–341) 68 (58–99) 0.000
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.2 ± 1.3 5.5 ± 0.8 ns
TGL (mmol/l) 1.2 (0.8–1.5) 1.02 (0.84–1.38) ns
Blood glucose (mmol/l) 4.8 ± 0.6 4.7 ± 0.8 ns
Insulin (pmol/l) 68.5 (50.2–102.7) 55.3 (36.0–69.1) 0.008
C-peptide (pmol/l) 785 (520–1010) 600 (450–880) 0.046
HOMA2-IR 1.4 (1.0–2.3) 1.2 (0.8–1.4) 0.008
HOMA2-IR > 1, n (%) 67/90 (74.4) 20/37 (54.1) 0.025
HOMA2-%S 70 (46–100) 84 (71.0–132) 0.010
HOMA2-%B 148 (116–190) 141 (114–158) ns
Proinsulinb (pmol/l) 3.9 (2.9/5.4) 2.9 (2.0/3.8) 0.032
SJC 7 (4–12)   
TJC 3.5 (0–7)   
Patient’s global assessment (VAS, mm) 50 (30–60)   
HAQ 0.6 (0.3–0.9)   
DAS28-ESR 4.8 ± 1.5   
DAS28-ESR ≥ 5.1, n (%) 46/90 (51.1)   
DAS28-ESR ≤ 3.2, n (%) 20/90 (22.2)   
DAS 28-CRP 4.2 ± 1.5   
Patients treated with GC, n (%) 59/90 (65.6)   
GC, average daily doses (mg/day) 5 (5–10)   
Duration of GC therapy (years) 4 (2–6)   
DMARD c, n (%) 90/90 (100%)   
Patients on biologic drugs, n (%) 25/90 (27.8)   
Rheumatoid factor positive (%) 53/90 (58.9)   
Anti-CCP positive (%) 63/90 (70.0)   
  1. Data are presented as mean values ± SD or the median and interquartile range (IQR) or percentages. Two-tailed level of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant and marked in bold
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, CCP cyclic citrullinated peptide, CRP C-reactive protein, DAS28 disease activity score of 28 joints, DMARD disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, GC glucocorticoids, HAQ Health Assessment Questionnaire, HOMA2-%B Homeostasis Model Assessment of beta cell function, HOMA2-IR Homeostasis Model Assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA2-%S Homeostasis Model Assessment of insulin sensitivity, IL interleukin, MMP3 matrix metalloproteinase-3, SJC number of swollen joints, TGL triglycerides, TJC number of tender joints, VAS visual analogue scale (0–100 mm), WC waist circumference
  3. aIncreased waist circumference was defined as > 102 cm in men and > 88 cm in women. bProinsulin was measured in 1/3 of the participants. cOut of 90 patients treated with DMARDs, 84/90 (93.3%) were treated with methotrexate (MTX). Out of them, 38/84 (45.2%) had been receiving MTX in combination with chloroquine. Only ten patients (11.1%) received sulfasalazine or leflunomide