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Table 4 Factors associated with referral to EGD (multivariable generalized linear mixed effects models, GLMM). Statistically significant results are highlighted in bold font

From: Performance of the UCLA Scleroderma Clinical Trials Consortium Gastrointestinal Tract 2.0 instrument as a clinical decision aid in the routine clinical care of patients with systemic sclerosis

Multivariable GLMM
Parameters Models* OR 95% CI p AUC (95% CI)
Age Model 1 0.99 0.97–1.01 0.269 0.75 (0.69–0.80)
Sex   0.66 0.33–1.33 0.242  
Disease duration   1.00 0.98–1.02 0.926  
SSc subset   1.27 0.67–2.40 0.471  
mRSS   1.05 1.00–1.10 0.030  
Hb   0.89 0.74–1.07 0.218  
PPI   0.80 0.49–1.30 0.363  
BMI   1.03 0.97–1.09 0.294  
FVC   1.00 0.99–1.01 0.948  
ESR   1.00 0.99–1.02 0.943  
Barrett’s esophagus   24.4 2.43–245.18 0.007  
Heartburn Model 2 2.23 1.35–3.69 0.002 0.71 (0.65–0.76)
Regurgitation   2.09 1.14–3.81 0.017  
Dysphagia   3.01 1.79–5.05 < 0.001  
Vomiting   1.98 0.62–6.25 0.247  
Esophageal symptoms Model 3 1.91 1.14–3.18 0.013 0.68 (0.62–0.74)
Stomach symptoms   2.12 1.24–3.61 0.006  
Reflux subscale Model 4 1.86 1.19–2.90 0.006 0.68 (0.62–0.74)
Distention/bloating subscale Model 5 1.50 1.12–2.01 0.007 0.70 (0.65–0.76)
Social functioning Model 6 2.57 1.56–4.23 < 0.001 0.65 (0.59–0.71)
Emotional wellbeing Model 7 1.32 0.80–2.19 0.274 0.68 (0.62–0.74)
Total UCLA GIT 2.0 score Model 8 2.16 1.21–3.83 0.009 0.64 (0.58–0.70)
  1. *Model 1 contains the covariates age, sex, disease duration, PPI therapy, mRSS, ESR, Hb, FVC, Barrett’s esophagus, BMI, and a subset of SSc. All other models contain, in addition to the covariates of model 1, the following covariates: model 2: heartburn, regurgitation, dysphagia, and vomiting; model 3: the symptom clusters “esophageal symptoms” and “stomach symptoms” as per expert opinion; and models 4–8: one of the mentioned subscales of UCLA GIT 2.0, respectively the total UCLA GIT 2.0 score
  2. mRSS modified Rodnan skin score, Hb hemoglobin, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, PPI proton pump inhibitors, FVC forced vital capacity, BMI body mass index