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Table 1 Baseline and clinical characteristics of recruited patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

From: Effectiveness of bazedoxifene in preventing glucocorticoid-induced bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis patients

Variable Total (n = 114) Bazedoxifene group (nb = 57) Control group (nc = 57)
Age, years 59.2 ± 6.3 59.3 ± 6.7 59.1 ± 6.0
Body mass index 23.9 ± 3.5 23.8 ± 3.9 24.0 ± 3.1
Age of menopause 48.6 ± 4.8 48.2 ± 5.0 49.1 ± 4.6
Use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) 25 (21.9) 11 (19.3) 14 (24.6)
 Duration of HRT use 22.8 ± 24.0 28.3 ± 25.3 18.6 ± 23.1
Smoking    
 ≤ 100/lifetime 108 (94.7) 55 (96.5) 53 (93.0)
 Smoker in the past 4 (3.5) 4 (7.0)
 Current smoker 2 (1.8) 2 (3.5)
Age of diagnosis with RA, years
(n = 111, nb = 56, nc = 55)
50.5 ± 9.0 49.4 ± 9.0 51.6 ± 9.0
DAS28-ESR 4.4 ± 1.3 4.3 ± 1.3 4.4 ± 1.4
DAS28-CRP 3.3 ± 1.2 3.2 ± 1.1 3.3 ± 1.3
Comorbidities    
 Charlson comorbidity index score 1.2 ± 0.5 1.3 ± 0.6 1.2 ± 0.4
 Cardiovascular disease 2 (1.8) 1 (1.8) 1 (1.8)
 Hypertension 42 (36.8) 24 (42.1) 18 (31.6)
 Peptic ulcer disease 1 (0.9) 1 (1.8)
 Mild liver disease 7 (6.1) 2 (3.5) 5 (8.8)
 Diabetes without chronic complications 9 (7.9) 6 (10.5) 3 (5.3)
 Diabetes with chronic complications 3 (2.6) 3 (5.3)
Laboratory tests    
 Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (mm/h) 35.4 ± 26.6 34.0 ± 26.0 36.9 ± 27.5
 C-reactive protein (mg/dl) 0.8 ± 1.1 0.7 ± 0.7 0.9 ± 1.3
 Rheumatoid factor positivity 81 (71.1) 41 (71.9) 40 (70.2)
Anti-CCP positivity
(n = 111, nb = 54, nc = 57)
99 (89.2) 47 (87.0) 52 (91.2)
Antinuclear antibody positivity
(n = 109, nb = 53, nc = 56)
69 (63.3) 33 (62.3) 36 (64.3)
 Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase 14.7 ± 4.7 14.3 ± 4.2 15.1 ± 5.1
 Osteocalcin 19.8 ± 9.5 20.5 ± 10.6 19.1 ± 8.2
 C-telopeptide 0.5 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.2
 N-telopeptide 46.5 ± 18.5 46.2 ± 19.6 46.7 ± 17.6
Bone mineral density    
 Lumbar spine 0.9 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.1
 Lt. hip neck 0.6 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1
 Rt. hip neck 0.6 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1
T-score    
 L-spine − 1.3 ± 0.8 − 1.3 ± 0.8 − 1.3 ± 0.7
 Lt. hip neck − 1.9 ± 1.9 − 1.7 ± 0.7 − 2.0 ± 2.7
 Rt. hip neck − 1.6 ± 0.7 − 1.6 ± 0.6 − 1.5 ± 0.8
Trabecular bone score 1.3 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.1
Fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) score 13.8 ± 5.1 14.6 ± 5.0 13.0 ± 5.1
Hip FRAX score 5.3 ± 3.7 5.7 ± 3.5 4.9 ± 3.8
Patients at high risk of fracture* 80 (70.2) 40 (70.2) 40 (70.2)
Patients at moderate or high risk of fracture 112 (98.2) 56 (98.2) 56 (98.2)
Current medications    
DMARDs 114 (100.0) 57 (100.0) 57 (100.0)
 Methotrexate 95 (83.3) 50 (87.7) 45 (78.9)
 Biologic DMARDs 17 (14.9) 9 (15.8) 8 (14.0)
  Etanercept 7 (6.1) 4 (7.0) 3 (5.3)
  Abatacept 5 (4.4) 4 (7.0) 1 (1.8)
  Golimumab 3 (2.6) 1 (1.8) 2 (3.5)
  Adalimumab 2 (1.8) 2 (3.5)
Non-selective NSAIDs 11 (9.6) 5 (8.8) 6 (10.5)
COX2 selective inhibitor 85 (74.6) 43 (75.4) 42 (73.7)
Equivalent dose of prednisolone (mg/day)
(n = 107, nb = 53, nc = 54)
3.0
(1.1–10.0)
3.2
(1.1–10.0)
2.7
(1.3–5.0)
HAQ 0.6 ± 0.6 0.7 ± 0.6 0.5 ± 0.5
EuroQol-5 dimension 0.8 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.1
Visual analog scale (VAS) of pain 43.2 ± 27.2 44.4 ± 26.4 41.9 ± 28.2
VAS of global health 41.3 ± 25.7 41.9 ± 25.4 40.7 ± 26.3
VAS of sleep 28.1 ± 28.7 28.1 ± 28.7 28.1 ± 29.0
VAS of fatigue 40.3 ± 26.8 42.6 ± 27.2 37.9 ± 26.4
  1. Continuous data are presented as mean ± SD, and categorical data are presented as frequency (%)
  2. *High risk of fracture was defined as a 10-year-probability of major osteoporotic fracture exceeding 20% or a 10-year probability of hip fracture exceeding 3% based on the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX)
  3. Moderate or high risk of fracture was defined as a 10-year-probability of major osteoporotic fracture exceeding 10% or a 10-year probability of hip fracture exceeding 1% based on the FRAX tool
  4. Dose of glucocorticoid is presented as mean ± SD (range)
  5. DAS, disease activity score, ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP, C-reactive protein, Anti-CCP, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, DMARDs, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, HAQ, health assessment questionnaire-disability index