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Table 1 Demographic characteristics, autoimmune disease diagnosis, known risk factors for COVID-19, potential exposure to SARS-CoV-2, use of protective measures, symptoms of COVID-19, current treatments and modifications, flares, and serological status for SARS-CoV-2

From: Incidence and predictors of COVID-19 and flares in patients with rare autoimmune diseases: a systematic survey and serological study at a national reference center in France

Patient characteristics  
Age (years), median [IQR25-75] 53 (37–65)
Female, n (%) 840 (79.6%)
AISD diagnosis, n (%)  
Lupus 205 (19.4)
Sjögren 190 (18)
Systemic sclerosis 159 (15.1)
IM 113 (10.7)
JIA 110 (10.4)
Vasculitis 94 (8.9)
Overlap syndrome 84 (8.0)
Primary APS 33 (3.1)
Sarcoidosis 26 (2.5)
Behçet 15 (1.4)
MCTD 14 (1.3)
Other 12 (1.2)
Benefited from preventive work cessation, n (%) 96/852 (11.3)
At least one contact with a confirmed COVID-19 case, n (%) 63/1054 (6.0)
Self-suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection (according to the patient him/herself), n (%) 201/1051 (19.1)
Self-reported SARS-CoV-2 infection symptoms, n (%) /1054
Fever 89 (8.4)
Chills 62 (5.9)
Myalgia 86 (8.2)
Cough/dyspnea 133 (12.6)
Thoracic pain/oppression 39 (3.9)
Gastroenteritis 54 (5.1)
Anosmia 42 (4.0)
Thrombosis 1 (0.09)
Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection (history of), n (%) /1054
Cancer 49 (4.6)
Cardiac failure 34 (3.2)
Myocardial infarction 29 (2.7)
Diabetes 71 (6.7)
Hypertension 250 (23.7)
Cerebrovascular event 47 (4.5)
Respiratory failure 126 (12.0)
Renal failure 65 (6.2)
Hepatic insufficiency 43 (4.1)
BMI (kg/m2), median [IQR25-75] 24.4 (21.2–28.7)
BMI > 35 53 (5.7)
BMI > 40 19 (2.1)
Smoking status, n (%) /973
Current smoker 129 (13.3)
Former smoker 273 (28.1)
Never smoker 571 (58.7)
Treatments, n (%) /1054
NSAIDs 81 (7.7)
Glucocorticoids 289 (27.4)
Antimalarials (HCQ/CQ) 262 (24.9)
Immunosuppressive agents/biologics 447 (42.4)
Treatment modification due to pandemic, n (%) 73/1054 (6.9)
Reporting a flare-up of AISD (self-diagnosed), n (%) 166/1054 (15.7)
Serological status for SARS-CoV-2, n (%)  
Positive IgG and/or IgM 31/469 (6.6)
  1. *Other: relapsing polychondritis (n = 6), undifferentiation connective tissue disease (n = 3), Still’s disease (n = 2), Shulman’s disease (n = 1). Numbers between brackets: data availability
  2. Abbreviations: AISD, autoimmune systemic disease; APS, anti-phospholipid syndrome; BMI, body mass index; JIA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis; IIM, idiopathic inflammatory-myositis; MCTD, mixed-connective tissue disorder; NSAIDS, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs