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Table 2 Demographic characteristics, autoimmune disease diagnosis, risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and current treatments

From: Incidence and predictors of COVID-19 and flares in patients with rare autoimmune diseases: a systematic survey and serological study at a national reference center in France

  Patients with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, n = 39 Non-infected patients
n = 457
p
Age (years), median [IQR25-75] 56.9 (47.6–65.9) 56.9 (43.5–67.2) 0.80
Female, n (%) 29 (74.4%) 363 (79.4%) 0.42
Preventive work cessation, n (%) 3 (9.1%) 49 (11.8%) 0.64
At least one contact with a confirmed COVID-19 case, n (%) 16 (42.1%) 27 (5.9%) < 0.0001
Self-suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 201) (according to the patient him/herself), n (%) 32 (84.2%) 122 (26.8%) < 0.0001
Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection (history of), n (%)[1054]    
Cancer 2 (7.9%) 25 (5.5%) 0.53
Cardiac failure 1 (2.6%) 14 (3.1%) 0.88
Myocardial infarction 0 15 (3.3%) 0.26
Diabetes 1 (2.6%) 30 (6.6%) 0.34
Hypertension 9 (23.7%) 126 (27.6%) 0.61
Cerebrovascular event 3 (7.9%) 24 (5.3%) 0.49
Respiratory failure 5 (13.2%) 70 (15.3%) 0.72
Renal failure 2 (5.3%) 36 (7.9%) 0.56
Hepatic insufficiency 2 (5.3%) 20 (4.4%) 0.80
BMI (kg/m2), median [IQR25-75] 24.2 (21.3–28.2) 24.8 (21.5–28.7) 0.36
BMI > 35 2 (5.4%) 31 (7.7%) 0.62
BMI > 40 0 13 (3.2%) 0.27
Smoking status, n (%)    0.13
Current smoker 1 (2.8%) 65 (15.0%)  
Former smoker 13 (36.1%) 141 (32.5%)  
Never smoker 22 (61.1%) 228 (52.5%)  
Smoking ever 14 (38.9%) 206 (47.5%) 0.32
Treatments, n (%)[1054]    
NSAIDs 5 (13.2%) 28 (6.1%) 0.09
Glucocorticoids 9 (23.7%) 135 (29.6%) 0.44
Antimalarials (HCQ/CQ) 14 (36.8%) 131 (28.7%) 0.29
Immunosuppressive agents/biologics 15 (39.5%) 195 (42.6%) 0.70
Treatment modification due to pandemic, n (%) 10 (26.3%) 32 (7.0%) < 0.0001
Reporting a flare-up of AISD (self-diagnosed), n (%) 13 (34.2%) 58 (12.7%) 0.0003
Serological status for SARS-CoV-2, n (%)    
Positive IgG and/or IgM 31/33 (93.9%) 0 < 0.0001