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Table 1 Patient characteristics by HDAS category (n = 342)

From: Disease course following High Disease Activity Status revealed patterns in SLE

Patient characteristic HDAS patient category Evidence of difference in characteristic (p value)c
Never experienced HDAS (n = 191) One HDAS visit (n = 36) Recurrent but not Persistent HDAS (n = 43) Persistent HDAS (n = 72)
Female sex 168 (88.0%) 30 (83.3%) 39 (90.7%) 59 (81.9%) 0.46
Asian ethnicitya 67 (35.8%) 16 (48.5%) 26 (61.9%) 33 (45.8%) 0.014
Age at diagnosis (years), median (IQR) 32 (25, 45) 27 (19, 46.5) 26 (20, 37) 28.5 (21, 35) 0.012
Disease duration at enrolment (years), median (IQR) 3 (0.6, 11.5) 4.6 (0.8, 11.2) 5.7 (2, 12.8) 4.05 (0.85, 10.3) 0.64
Total patient observation time (years), median (IQR) 4.9 (3, 8.7) 5.6 (2.1, 8.1) 8.3 (4.7, 10.4) 8.8 (5.1, 12.1) < 0.001
Categorical observation time variable
 < 5 years 98 (51.3%) 17 (47.2%) 12 (27.9%) 17 (23.6%) < 0.001
 5–10 years 62 (32.5%) 13 (36.1%) 17 (39.5%) 22 (30.6%)  
 10+ years 31 (16.2%) 6 (16.7%) 14 (32.6%) 33 (45.8%)  
Organ involvement
 Skin 126 (66.0%) 18 (50.0%) 31 (72.1%) 45 (62.5%) 0.20
 Arthritis 134 (70.2%) 23 (63.9%) 31 (72.1%) 44 (61.1%) 0.46
 Haematological 92 (48.2%) 21 (58.3%) 27 (62.8%) 40 (55.6%) 0.26
 Renal 43 (22.5%) 12 (33.3%) 24 (55.8%) 50 (69.4%) < 0.001
 Serositis 49 (25.7%) 11 (30.6%) 18 (41.9%) 38 (52.8%) < 0.001
 Neurological 16 (8.4%) 3 (8.3%) 7 (16.3%) 19 (26.4%) 0.001
Serological profile
 Anti_dsDNA 123 (65.1%) 30 (85.7%) 42 (97.7%) 70 (97.2%) < 0.001
 Anti_Sm 20 (11.0%) 8 (22.9%) 12 (28.6%) 17 (23.6%) 0.007
 Anti_Ro 74 (40.7%) 17 (48.6%) 26 (61.9%) 38 (52.8%) 0.052
 Anti-phospholipid-autoantibody-positive 94 (49.2%) 18 (50.0%) 25 (58.1%) 42 (58.3%) 0.49
 Low complement at baselineb 89 (46.6%) 24 (66.7%) 29 (67.4%) 58 (80.6%) < 0.001
 Anti-dsDNA-positive and low complement at baseline 60 (31.4%) 20 (55.6%) 29 (67.4%) 57 (79.2%) < 0.001
Adjusted mean SLEDAI, median (IQR) 2.2 (1.2, 3.5) 4.1 (3.55, 5.5) 5.2 (4.1, 6.2) 6.4 (5.0, 8.1) < 0.001
Mild/moderate flare rate, median (IQR) per 100 person-years 0.3 (0, .6) 0.5 (0.3, 1.05) 0.9 (0.6, 1.2) 0.9 (0.6, 1.3) < 0.001
Severe flare rate, median (IQR) per 100 person-years 0 (0, 0) 0.1 (0, 0.4) 0.2 (0.1, .4) 0.5 (0.2, 0.9) < 0.001
Damage accrual over observation period 51 (26.7%) 13 (36.1%) 20 (46.5%) 48 (66.7%) < 0.001
Treatment received
 Hydroxychloroquine 175 (91.6%) 32 (88.9%) 43 (100.0%) 69 (95.8%) 0.12
 Other immunosuppressantsd 119 (62.3%) 29 (80.6%) 41 (95.3%) 72 (100.0%) < 0.001
 Hydroxychloroquine/other immunosuppressantsd 183 (95.8%) 35 (97.2%) 43 (100.0%) 72 (100.0%) 0.18
 Mycophenolate 43 (22.5%) 15 (41.7%) 29 (67.4%) 56 (77.8%) < 0.001
 Azathioprine 53 (27.7%) 15 (41.7%) 24 (55.8%) 41 (56.9%) < 0.001
 Methotrexate 44 (23.0%) 9 (25.0%) 8 (18.6%) 19 (26.4%) 0.81
 Cyclophosphamide 4 (2.1%) 0 (0.0%) 3 (7.0%) 17 (23.6%) < 0.001
 Tacrolimus 3 (1.6%) 0 (0.0%) 4 (9.3%) 4 (5.6%) 0.026
 Leflunomide 11 (5.8%) 1 (2.8%) 1 (2.3%) 4 (5.6%) 0.73
 Prednisolone (any dose) 128 (67.0%) 32 (88.9%) 41 (95.3%) 71 (98.6%) < 0.001
 Prednisolone > 15 mg per day 61 (31.9%) 20 (55.6%) 34 (79.1%) 64 (88.9%) < 0.001
  1. a89.1% (156) of non-Asians were of Caucasian ethnicity; other ethnicities reported included Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander, African, Egyptian, Latin American, Maori, Middle Eastern, Pacific Islander, and Turkish ethnicity and persons of mixed ethnicity
  2. bIncludes positivity for anti-cardiolipin, anti-beta2GPI, or lupus anticoagulant
  3. cTests used to compare the HDAS categories included the Pearson’s chi-squared test, Fisher’s exact test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test
  4. dOther immunosuppressants include mycophenolate, azathioprine, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, leflunomide, chloroquine, mercaptopurine, and sulfasalazine