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Table 2 Clinical associations that predict HDAS patient categories

From: Disease course following High Disease Activity Status revealed patterns in SLE

Patient characteristic HDAS patient categorya
(relative risk, 95% confidence interval; p value)
1 HDAS visit (n = 36) Recurrent but not Persistent HDAS (n = 43) Persistent HDAS (n = 72)
Asian ethnicity 1.69 (0.80–3.55; 0.170) 2.91 (1.46–5.81; 0.002) 1.52 (0.87–2.63; 0.140)
Total patient observation (years) 0.99 (0.89–1.09; 0.783) 1.13 (1.04–1.24; 0.006) 1.21 (1.12–1.30; < 0.001)
Categorical observation time variable
 < 5 years 1.0 (not applicable) 1.0 (not applicable) 1.0 (not applicable)
 5–10 years 1.21 (0.55–2.66; 0.638) 2.24 (1.0–5.0; 0.050) 2.05 (1.0–4.15; 0.048)
 10+ years 1.12 (0.40–3.08; 0.832) 3.69 (1.54–8.81; 0.003) 6.14 (3.01–12.49; < 0.001)
Organ involvement by SLICC SLE Classification Criteria
 Skin 0.52 (0.25–1.06; 0.071) 1.33 (0.64–2.77; 0.441) 0.86 (0.49–1.51; 0.599)
 Arthritis 0.75 (0.36–1.59; 0.456) 1.10 (0.53–2.29; 0.801) 0.67 (0.38–1.18; 0.163)
 Haematological 1.51 (0.73–3.10; 0.265) 1.82 (0.92–3.59; 0.086) 1.35 (0.78–2.32; 0.286)
 Renal 1.72 (0.80–3.72; 0.168) 4.35 (2.18–8.68; < 0.001) 7.82 (4.27–14.33; < 0.001)
 Serositis 1.28 (0.58–2.78; 0.541) 2.09 (1.05–4.15; 0.036) 3.24 (1.84–5.70; < 0.001)
 Neurological 0.99 (0.27–3.60; 0.993) 2.13 (0.82–5.54; 0.123) 3.92 (1.88–8.16; < 0.001)
Serological profile
 Anti_dsDNA 3.22 (1.19–8.69; 0.021) 22.54 (3.03–167.46; 0.002) 18.78 (4.46–79.03; < 0.001)
 Anti_Sm 2.40 (0.96–6.0; 0.061) 3.24 (1.43–7.32; 0.005) 2.50 (1.22–5.12; 0.012)
 Anti_Ro 1.38 (0.67–2.85; 0.386) 2.37 (1.19–4.73; 0.014) 1.63 (0.94–2.82; 0.081)
 Anti-phospholipid-autoantibody-positive 1.03 (0.51–2.10; 0.931) 1.43 (0.73–2.80; 0.292) 1.44 (0.84–2.50; 0.188)
 Low complement at baseline 2.29 (1.08–4.85; 0.030) 2.37 (1.18–4.77; 0.015) 4.75 (2.48–9.09; < 0.001)
 Anti-dsDNA-positive and low complement at baseline 2.73 (1.32–5.63; 0.007) 4.52 (2.23–9.17; < 0.001) 8.30 (4.35–15.82; < 0.001)
  1. aReference category: patients who never experienced HDA (n = 191)