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Table 3 Association between IgM anti-PC and incident CVE, in total and within groups by risk characteristics

From: Higher levels of anti-phosphorylcholine autoantibodies in early rheumatoid arthritis indicate lower risk of incident cardiovascular events

  N of events Non-adjusted
HR (95% CI)
p Adjusted
HR (95% CI)
p
IgM anti-PC baseline
> median vs. < median
141 0.603 (0.430–0.846) 0.003 0.828 (0.589–1.165) 0.279
 Analyses within strata
  Age
   Age < 55 years 22 0.396 (0.166–0.943) 0.036 0.360 (0.142–0.916)† 0.032
   Age > 55 years 119 0.883 (0.611–1.277) 0.510  
  Sex
   Women 81 0.608 (0.391–0.945) 0.027 0.985 (0.629–1.541) 0.946
   Men 60 0.614 (0.359–1.050) 0.075 0.558 (0.325–0.958)† 0.034
  BMI
   BMI < 25 kg/m2 63 0.524 (0.316–0.868) 0.012 0.827 (0.496–1.377) 0.465
   BMI 25–30 kg/m2 59 0.885 (0.523–1.498) 0.650  
   BMI > 30 kg/m2 19 0.278 (0.080–0.969) 0.044 0.235 (0.065–0.842)† 0.026
  Smoking
   Non-smoker 98 0.510 (0.337–0.774) 0.002 0.722 (0.475–1.098) 0.128
   Current smoker 43 0.877 (0.482–1.597) 0.668  
  Hypertension
   Non-hypertensive 104 0.594 (0.402–0.880) 0.009 0.878 (0.591–1.305) 0.520
   Hypertensive 37 0.805 (0.410–1.583) 0.530  
  Diabetes mellitus
   Non-diabetic 133 0.663 (0.469–0.936) 0.019 0.899 (0.635–1.273) 0.549
   Diabetic 8 0.017 (0.001–5.059) 0.161  
  Hyperlipidemia
   Non-hyperlipidemic 3 0.601 (0.427–0.847) 0.004 0.836 (0.592–1.179) 0.307
   Hyperlipidemic 138 1.423 (0.126–16.043) 0.775  
  Seropositivity
   Seropositive 94 0.669 (0.444–1.007) 0.054 0.846 (0.561–1.276) 0.425
   Seronegative 47 0.496 (0.265–0.927) 0.028 0.782 (0.415–1.473) 0.782
  DAS28 remission at 1 year
   Remission 49 1.235 (0.691–2.206) 0.476  
   Non-remission 92 0.440 (0.284–0.683) < 0.001 0.592 (0.379–0.924)† 0.021
 DAS28 remission at 2 years
  Remission 54 0.851 (0.498–1.457) 0.557  
  Non-remission 87 0.498 (0.320–0.774) 0.002 0.681 (0.435–1.068)† 0.095
AUC of IgM anti-PC at baseline and 2 years
> median vs. < median
116 0.614 (0.423–0.890) 0.010 0.847 (0.583–1.232) 0.386
 Age
  Age < 55 years 16 0.520 (0.194–1.397) 0.195  
  Age > 55 years 100 0.841 (0.562–1.257) 0.398  
 Sex
  Women 67 0.765 (0.474–1.236) 0.274  
  Men 49 0.490 (0.264–0.911) 0.024 0.428 (0.227–0.807)† 0.009
 BMI
  BMI < 25 kg/m2 50 0.493 (0.279–0.871) 0.015 0.841 (0.471–1.503) 0.559
  BMI 25–30 kg/m2 48 0.973 (0.547–1.730) 0.926  
  BMI > 30 kg/m2 18 0.330 (0.105–1.031) 0.056 0.297 (0.089–0.988)† 0.048
 DAS28 remission at 1 year
  Remission 40 1.121 (0.591–2,124) 0.727  
  Non-remission 76 0.487 (0.300–0.791) 0.004 0.648 (0.395–1.064)† 0.087
 DAS28 remission at 2 years
  Remission 44 0.856 (0.473–1.549) 0.607  
  Non-remission 72 0.510 (0.314–0.828) 0.006 0.698 (0.430–1.136) 0.148
  1. Values are hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CI obtained with Cox proportional hazard regression. The number of patients with measures of IgM anti-PC at baseline was 653, and the number of patients with measures of AUC of IgM anti-PC was 523. Anti-PC baseline median ≥ 60.9 U/ml, AUC of anti-PC median ≥ 117.3 U/ml
  2. CVE, cardiovascular events; BMI, body mass index; DAS28, Disease Activity Score 28-joint count; DAS28 remission, if DAS28 < 2.6; HAQ, Health Assessment Questionnaire; Anti-PC, phosphorylcholine antibodies
  3. Adjusted for age and sex. †HR, a fully adjusted (for age, sex, BMI, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia) analysis was run if results of the analyses adjusted for age and sex showed a p < 0.10