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Table 2 Characteristics of patients in the NR, SR and RR latent classes in the whole cohort

From: Distinct patterns of disease activity over time in patients with active SLE revealed using latent class trajectory models

Characteristics Non-responder/NR
(n=408)
(Class 3)
Slow-responder/SR
(n=249)
(Class 1)
Rapid-responder/RR
(n=441)
(Class 4)
P-value
Age group (years)     0.669
 <35 119 (29.1%) 72 (28.9%) 117 (26.5%)
 35–55 230 (56.4%) 133 (53.4%) 247 (56.0%)
 >55 59 (14.5%) 44 (17.7%) 77 (17.5%)
Female 387 (94.9%) 237 (95.2%) 412 (93.4%) 0.542
Disease duration (years) 6.04 (2.17, 13.3) 5.17 (1.92. 12.4) 5.33 (1.75, 12.3) 0.373
ACR/SLICC-DI 0 (0, 2) 0 (0, 2) 0 (0, 2) 0.905
SLEDAI-2K 9.5 (8, 12) 10 (8, 12) 10 (8, 12) 0.394
nBILAG score 17 (16, 21) 20 (16, 25) 20 (16, 25) <0.001
BILAG 2004 A or B score     
Constitutional 15 (3.68%) 26 (10.4%) 59 (13.4%) <0.001
 Mucocutaneous 335 (82.1%) 212 (85.1%) 362 (82.1%) 0.535
Musculoskeletal 365 (89.5%) 237 (95.2%) 425 (96.4%) <0.001
Cardiorespiratory 25 (6.13%) 25 (10.0%) 63 (14.3%) <0.001
 Gastrointestinal 3 (0.74%) 6 (2.41%) 8 (1.81%) 0.203
 Ophthalmological 4 (0.98%) 2 (0.8%) 6 (1.36%) 0.766
 Haematological 5 (1.23%) 2 (0.80%) 5 (1.13%) 0.875
Serology     
 Anti-Ro 198 (48.8%) 108 (44.8%) 207 (47.5%) 0.621
 Anti-RNP 109 (26.9%) 61 (25.3%) 142 (32.6%) 0.074
 Anti-dsDNA 107 (26.3%) 63 (26.1%) 123 (28.3%) 0.759
 Anti-dsDNA level* (IU/ml) (n=314) 291 (181, 456) 261 (175, 491) 291 (185, 544) 0.618
 Anti-Smith (Sm) 96 (23.7%) 59 (24.5%) 117 (26.8%) 0.548
 Low C3 level 129 (32.3%) 78 (32.0%) 143 (32.9%) 0.966
 C3 level (g/l) 1.08 (0.84, 1.30) 1.06 (0.85, 1.27) 1.08 (0.83, 1.28) 0.803
 Low C4 level 165 (41.3%) 88 (36.1%) 181 (41.6%) 0.320
 C4 level (mg/l) 200 (120, 300) 220 (150, 300) 200 (130, 310) 0.591
Epratuzumab (either dose) 252 (61.8%) 170 (68.3%) 300 (68.0%) 0.100
Baseline steroid dose (mg/day) 9.5 (5, 10) 10 (5, 15) 10 (5, 15) 0.0418
Cumulative steroid exposure (mg days) 2247.5 (1532.5, 3500) 2685 (1750, 4062.5) 2360 (1685, 3610) 0.0027
Concomitant therapy     
 Anti-malarial 279 (72.8%) 187 (75.1%) 327 (74.2%) 0.795
 Methotrexate 84 (20.6%) 55 (22.1%) 94 (21.3%) 0.899
 Leflunomide 9 (2.21%) 6 (2.41%) 17 (3.85%) 0.312
 Azathioprine 116 (28.4%) 73 (29.3%) 104 (23.8%) 0.158
 Mycophenolate mofetil 44 (10.8%) 29 (11.7%) 54 (12.4%) 0.801
Withdrawal (lack of efficacy) 84 (20.6%) 19 (7.63%) 37 (8.93%) <0.001
Withdrawal (adverse events) 24 (5.88%) 14 (5.62%) 29 (6.58%) 0.853
  1. Values are n (%) or median (IQR) as appropriate
  2. *Only in patients with high-dsDNA