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Table 1 Overview of included studies

From: The role of lung ultrasound B-lines and serum KL-6 in the screening and follow-up of rheumatoid arthritis patients for an identification of interstitial lung disease: review of the literature, proposal for a preliminary algorithm, and clinical application to cases

Author Number of patients Aim of study Comparison with other diagnostic modality Feasibility Cutoff value of B-line number Sensitivity (%) Specificity (%) NPV (%) PPV (%) AUC (%)
Moazedi-Fuerst et al. [55] 64 RA patients To screen subclinical RA-ILD HRCT N/A N/A 97.1 97.3 98.6 94.3 N/A
Barskova et al. [56] 58 SSc patients, including 32 VEDOSS To screen early SSc-ILD HRCT 100% > 5
≥20
100
83
55
96
100
N/A
78
N/A
94
N/A
Gutiérrez et al. [57] 133 SSc patients To detect and predict asymptomatic SSc-ILD HRCT N/A N/A 91.2% 88.6% N/A N/A N/A
Çakir et al. [58] 48 SSc patients To evaluate the severity of SSc-ILD HRCT N/A ≥6
> 24
100
79.3
84.2
94.7
100
N/A
90.6
N/A
93.7
94.8
Vizioli et al. [37] 104 suspected ILD patients To evaluate the accuracy of LUS detection of ILD HRCT 100% > 5
> 10
92
92
53
66
87
90
64
71
90
N/A
Aghdashi et al. [59] 31 suspected rheumatoid lung involvement patients To investigate the utility of LUS HRCT N/A > 5 73.5 88.2 51.7 95.1 N/A
  1. AUC, area under the curve; HRCT, high-resolution computed tomography; ILD, interstitial lung disease; LUS, lung ultrasound; N/A, not applicable; NPV, negative predictive value; PPV, positive predictive value; RA-ILD, rheumatoid arthritis–associated interstitial lung disease; SSc, systemic sclerosis; SSc-ILD, systemic sclerosis–associated interstitial lung disease; VEDOSS, very early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis