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Table 1 Characteristics of the patients

From: Mediterranean diet in axial spondyloarthritis: an observational study in an Italian monocentric cohort

  All patients* N C
Number of patients 110 47 63
Females, n (%) 40 (36.4) 18 (38.3) 22 (34.9)
Age, years, mean ± SD 51.7 ± 1.3 53.0 ± 1.3 49.6 ± 1.3
Schooling
 Primary school, n (%) 8 (7.3) 4 (8.5) 4 (6.3)
 Middle school, n (%) 45 (40.9) 18 (38.3) 27 (42.9)
 Secondary school, n (%) 36 (32.7) 17 (36.2) 19 (30.2)
 University, n (%) 21 (19.1) 8 (17) 13 (20.6)
Social status
 Living with parents and family, n (%) 15 (13.6) 6 (12.8) 9 (14.3)
 Living alone, n (%) 16 (14.5) 7 (14.9) 9 (14.3)
 Living with partner and family, n (%) 71 (64.5) 29 (61.7) 42 (66.7)
 Others, n (%) 8 (7.3) 5 (10.6) 3 (4.8)
Full- or part-time employed, n (%) 76 (69.1) 29 (61.7) 47 (74.6)
Smoking, current, n (%) 17 (15.5) 5 (10.6) 12 (19)
HLA-B27 positivity, n (%) 58 (52.7) 22 (46.8) 36 (57.1)
Psoriasis, n (%) 58 (50.7) 26 (55.3) 32 (50.8)
Uveitis, n (%) 7 (6.4) 5 (10.6) 2 (3.2)
Disease duration (years), mean ± SD 15.3 ± 9.7 15.7 ± 10 15 ± 9.5
Mechanism of action of current b/tsDMARD
 TNF inhibitors, n (%) 85 (77.3) 40 (85.1) 45 (71.4)
 IL-12/23 inhibitors, n (%) 9 (8.2) 1 (2.1) 8 (12.7)
 IL-17 inhibitors, n (%) 14 (12.7) 6 (12.8) 8 (12.7)
 PDE4 inhibitors, n (%) 2 (1.8) 0 (0) 2 (3.2)
Duration of b/tsDMARD treatment overall, years, mean ± SD 5 ± 4.1 5.8 ± 4.5 4.5 ± 3.8
Low-dose b/tsDMARD treatment, n (%) 28 (25.5) 11 (23.4) 17 (27)
b/tsDMARD naïve patients, n (%) 81 (73.6) 37 (78.7) 44 (69.8)
No. of b/tsDMARD treatments, mean ± SD 1.5 ± 0.9 1.3 ± 0.7 1.6 ± 1.1
Steroid, n (%) 9 (8.2) 1 (2.1) 8 (12.7)
NSAID, n (%) 76 (69.1) 30 (63.8) 46 (73)
csDMARD, n (%) 14 (12.7) 5 (10.6) 9 (14.3)
Concomitant treatments, n (%) 62 (56.4) 27 (57.4) 35 (55.6)
Distance from clinic, km, mean ± SD 36.1 ± 47.2 31.1 ± 34.2 39.7 ± 54.9
  1. N nutritional group, C control group, b/tsDMARD biological/targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, csDMARD conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug
  2. *No significant differences were observed among any of the variables between the two groups at T0