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Table 2 Cytokine profile of FMF patients, sepsis patients, and healthy controls

From: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and tumor necrosis factor-α in combination is a useful diagnostic biomarker to distinguish familial Mediterranean fever from sepsis

  FMF Sepsis HCs p value
Median 25th 75th Median 25th 75th Median 25th 75th FMF vs. sepsis Sepsis vs. HCs FMF vs. HCs
FGF-2 73.8 53.1 108 25.7 0 34.1 37.7 21.2 52.2 < 0.001 0.016 < 0.001
G-CSF 36.9 22.5 75.0 41.2 10.4 149 8.2 0 23.0 0.99 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
GM-CSF 23.5 10.8 46.6 1.8 0 3.2 1.5 0 6.7 < 0.001 0.41 < 0.0001
GRO 1193 679 1521 967 516 1453 969 750 1204 0.63 0.99 0.22
IFN-g 15.4 7.2 52.6 4.1 0.8 20.8 4.6 1.3 9.8 0.0313 0.98 < 0.0001
IL-17A 9.9 2.9 33.9 0.13 0 2.8 1.93 0.1 5.8 < 0.001 0.11 < 0.0001
IL-6 23.7 5.5 49.0 34.7 0.7 61.1 0 0 0 0.71 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
IL-8 33.1 16.0 44.5 30.8 13.3 55.4 63.03 23.5 108 0.94 0.031 0.048
IP-10 333 185 950 2083 542 4212 271.68 221 352 0.049 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
MCP-1 453 318 752 1263 805 1708 656 526 837 0.015 0.0005 0.023
MIP-1a 10.9 0.2 16.4 6.8 0 24.5 12.4 0 27.8 0.89 0.53 0.28
MIP-1b 60.8 45.1 74.8 32.4 1.0 46.0 53.2 31.1 79.4 0.0016 0.0077 0.69
TNF-α 8.6 5.7 15.7 26.9 16.7 73.9 12.4 9.3 16.6 0.0010 0.0002 0.055
VEGF 184 141 472 28.6 0 151 88.5 26.6 200 0.0002 0.083 < 0.0001
IL-18 94.2 50.6 772 105 75.1 382 112 65.2 181 0.84 0.86 0.71
  1. Values are the median (interquartile range) pg/ml. p values were established using Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a Dunn’s multiple comparisons test. FGF fibroblast growth factor; GM-CSF granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; GRO growth-regulated protein alpha precursor; G-CSF granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; IL interleukin; MCP-1 monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; TNF-α tumor necrosis factor-alpha; VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor. Bonferroni’s correction for multiple-cytokine testing was applied and p < 0.0033 was considered significant