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Table 2 Incidence rates, hazard ratios, and odds ratios of hand OA progression per treatment group following Cox regression analysis and GEE analysis among those with distal interphalangeal osteoarthritis at baseline (N = 1340)

From: Increased radiographic progression of distal hand osteoarthritis occurring during biologic DMARD monotherapy for concomitant rheumatoid arthritis

Exposure Hand OA progression events Person-time [years] IR per 1000 person-years Crude HR (95% CI) Adjusted HR (95% CI)a Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)a
Analysis using baseline information only
 csDMARD 526 3306.0 159.1 Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00) NA NA
 bDMARD 34 244.7 138.9 0.96 (0.71–1.31) 1.07 (0.78–1.46) NA NA
 Combination 132 886.6 148.9 1.03 (0.85–1.24) 1.09 (0.89–1.32) NA NA
 Past-use 8 53.8 148.7 1.24 (0.70–2.19) 1.15 (0.60–2.20) NA NA
 Never-use 83 629.7 131.8 0.77 (0.61–0.97) 0.81 (0.63–1.02) NA NA
Time-varying analysis
 csDMARD 421 2885.7 145.9 Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00)
 bDMARD 79 391.9 201.6 1.23 (0.98–1.54) 1.34 (1.07–1.69) 1.49 (1.15–1.93) 1.53 (1.17–2.00)
  TNFi 67 357.6 187.4 1.16 (0.91–1.48) 1.26 (0.98–1.62) 1.36 (1.03–1.79) 1.41 (1.06–1.88)
  Non-TNFi 12 34.3 349.9 1.85 (1.18–2.89) 2.07 (1.35–3.20) 2.94 (1.50–5.77) 2.79 (1.41–5.52)
 Combination 236 1378.7 171.2 1.05 (0.90–1.22) 1.12 (0.96–1.31) 1.12 (0.95–1.33) 1.16 (0.97–1.38)
  TNFi 210 1293.7 162.3 1.01 (0.86–1.18) 1.09 (0.92–1.28) 1.07 (0.90–1.28) 1.11 (0.93–1.33)
  Non-TNFi 26 85 305.9 1.54 (1.10–2.15) 1.56 (1.10–2.23) 1.75 (1.13–2.73) 1.77 (1.13–2.77)
 Past-use 24 128.4 186.9 0.96 (0.64–1.42) 0.96 (0.66–1.41) 1.36 (0.87–2.14) 1.30 (0.83–2.05)
 Never-use 23 335.9 68.5 0.51 (0.31–0.83) 0.54 (0.33–0.90) 0.89 (0.57–1.38) 0.91 (0.58–1.42)
  1. bDMARD biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, CI confidence interval, csDMARD conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, IR incidence rate, HR hazard ratio, OA osteoarthritis, OR odds ratio, TNFi tumor necrosis factor inhibitor
  2. aAdjusted for age, sex (time-invariant), body mass index, rheumatoid arthritis duration, rheumatoid factor (time-invariant), DAS28-esr score, prednisone use, cardiac disorders, hypertension, osteoporosis, hand surgery, large joint osteoarthritis, or hip/knee arthroplasty