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Table 3 Hazard ratios of hand OA progression per treatment group following time-varying Cox regression analyses in subgroups based on age, rheumatoid factor, osteoporosis (treatment), and prednisone use

From: Increased radiographic progression of distal hand osteoarthritis occurring during biologic DMARD monotherapy for concomitant rheumatoid arthritis

Exposure Hand OA progression events Person-time [years] Crude HR (95% CI) Adjusted HR (95% CI)a
Age ≤ 55 years at cohort entry
 csDMARD 130 860.6 Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00)
 bDMARD 31 127.4 1.36 (0.93–2.00) 1.49 (1.01–2.21)
 Combination 87 526.8 0.94 (0.73–1.22) 1.01 (0.78–1.33)
 Past-use 10 39.2 0.96 (0.41–2.26) 1.09 (0.51–2.34)
 Never-use 6 111.3 0.34 (0.14–0.80) 0.34 (0.14–0.84)
Age > 55 years at cohort entry
 csDMARD 291 2025.1 Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00)
 bDMARD 48 264.6 1.13 (0.86–1.51) 1.21 (0.90–1.61)
 Combination 149 851.9 1.11 (0.92–1.33) 1.16 (0.96–1.41)
 Past-use 14 89.2 0.84 (0.52–1.36) 0.79 (0.48–1.29)
 Never-use 17 224.6 0.62 (0.35–1.10) 0.68 (0.37–1.25)
Rheumatoid factor negative at cohort entry
 csDMARD 132 1014.4 Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00)
 bDMARD 28 167.5 1.22 (0.83–1.80) 1.33 (0.90–1.96)
 Combination 83 503.8 1.11 (0.85–1.44) 1.21 (0.92–1.58)
 Past-use 7 35.3 1.21 (0.61–2.38) 1.16 (0.58–2.33)
 Never-use 6 126.8 0.42 (0.19–0.92) 0.45 (0.20–1.03)
Rheumatoid factor positive at cohort entry
 csDMARD 284 1832.4 Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00)
 bDMARD 45 210.7 1.20 (0.89–1.60) 1.40 (1.04–1.89)
 Combination 139 809.4 0.99 (0.82–1.21) 1.09 (0.89–1.32)
 Past-use 17 86.6 0.87 (0.52–1.42) 0.86 (0.55–1.36)
 Never-use 16 186.2 0.58 (0.31–1.10) 0.59 (0.31–1.13)
Osteoporosis/fracture or osteoporosis treatment (additionally time-varying)
 csDMARD without osteoporosis 334 2342.2 Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00)
 csDMARD with osteoporosis 87 543.5 0.88 (0.69–1.13) 0.87 (0.68–1.11)
 bDMARD without osteoporosis 50 226.5 1.35 (1.04–1.77) 1.43 (1.09–1.88)
 bDMARD with osteoporosis 29 165.4 1.00 (0.70–1.43) 1.04 (0.72–1.49)
 Combination therapy without osteoporosis 165 952.5 1.06 (0.89–1.27) 1.13 (0.94–1.35)
 Combination therapy with osteoporosis 71 426.2 0.94 (0.75–1.18) 0.95 (0.76–1.20)
 Never/past-use without osteoporosis 38 390.3 0.65 (0.44–0.95) 0.69 (0.47–1.02)
 Never/past-use with osteoporosis 9 74.0 0.68 (0.34–1.37) 0.66 (0.34–1.29)
Prednisone treatment (additionally time-varying)
 csDMARD without prednisone 219 1509.1 0.79 (0.57–1.08) 0.72 (0.52–1.00)
 csDMARD with prednisone 202 1376.6 0.87 (0.64–1.20) 0.81 (0.59–1.12)
 bDMARD without prednisone 38 183.8 Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00)
 bDMARD with prednisone 41 208.2 1.03 (0.69–1.54) 1.07 (0.72–1.60)
 Combination therapy without prednisone 128 679.8 0.90 (0.64–1.25) 0.88 (0.63–1.22)
 Combination therapy with prednisone 108 699.0 0.83 (0.60–1.17) 0.83 (0.59–1.17)
 Never/past-use without prednisone 22 287.8 0.39 (0.23–0.67) 0.36 (0.21–0.63)
 Never/past-use with prednisone 25 176.5 0.90 (0.54–1.47) 0.87 (0.53–1.45)
  1. bDMARD biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, CI confidence interval, csDMARD conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, HR hazard ratio
  2. aAdjusted for age, sex (time-invariant), body mass index, rheumatoid arthritis duration, rheumatoid factor (time-invariant), DAS28-esr score, prednisone use, cardiac disorders, hypertension, osteoporosis, hand surgery, large-joint osteoarthritis, or hip/knee arthroplasty