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Table 4 Hazard ratios of progression in osteoarthritis components (osteophytes, joint space narrowing, sclerosis, and erosions) per treatment group in time-varying Cox regression analysis

From: Increased radiographic progression of distal hand osteoarthritis occurring during biologic DMARD monotherapy for concomitant rheumatoid arthritis

Exposure Osteophyte progression events Person-time [years] Crude HR (95% CI) Adjusted HR (95% CI)a
 csDMARD 404 2883.3 Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00)
 bDMARD 77 400.3 1.56 (0.90–2.47) 1.74 (1.11–2.74)
  TNFi 66 362.7 1.16 (0.90–1.48) 1.25 (0.97–1.62)
  Non-TNFi 11 37.3 1.60 (1.01–2.53) 1.82 (1.15–2.87)
 Combination 226 1424.9 0.96 (0.82–1.13) 1.02 (0.87–1.20)
  TNFi 203 1321.9 0.98 (0.83–1.16) 1.06 (0.90–1.25)
  Non-TNFi 23 103 1.08 (0.73–1.61) 1.16 (0.78–1.71)
 Past-use 23 131.5 0.90 (0.61–1.35) 0.91 (0.61–1.36)
 Never-use 18 337.5 0.40 (0.23–0.68) 0.41 (0.23–0.72)
Exposure JSN progression events Person-time [years] Crude HR (95% CI) Adjusted HR (95% CI)a
 csDMARD 231 3239.2 Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00)
 bDMARD 51 458.1 1.80 (0.92–3.49) 1.38 (1.01–1.86)
  TNFi 43 410.4 1.33 (0.97–1.82) 1.32 (0.95–1.83)
  Non-TNFi 8 47.4 1.88 (0.96–3.66) 1.76 (0.89–3.46)
 Combination 136 1636.7 0.98 (0.79–1.20) 1.04 (0.83–1.29)
  TNFi 124 1531 1.02 (0.82–1.27) 1.03 (0.82–1.29)
  Non-TNFi 12 105.8 1.15 (0.67–1.98) 1.12 (0.65–1.94)
 Past-use 16 145.8 1.15 (0.72–1.83) 1.19 (0.74–1.92)
 Never-use 15 343.6 0.71 (0.40–1.27) 0.83 (0.46–1.48)
Exposure Sclerosis progression events Person-time [years] Crude HR (95% CI) Adjusted HR (95% CI)a
 csDMARD 160 3302.2 Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00)
 bDMARD 27 484.1 1.66 (0.77–3.57) 1.07 (0.72–1.60)
  TNFi 22 432.3 0.95 (0.61–1.46) 0.97 (0.63–1.52)
  Non-TNFi 5 51.8 1.67 (0.77–3.60) 1.89 (0.87–4.11)
 Combination 84 1673.7 0.90 (0.69–1.17) 0.97 (0.74–1.27)
  TNFi 75 1554.2 0.90 (0.69–1.18) 0.94 (0.71–1.24)
  Non-TNFi 9 119.5 1.28 (0.67–2.45) 1.34 (0.71–2.52)
 Past-use 10 159.5 1.02 (0.53–1.94) 1.04 (0.53–2.01)
 Never-use 9 344.7 0.67 (0.34–1.35) 0.71 (0.35–1.45)
Exposure Erosion progression Person-time [years] Crude HR (95% CI) Adjusted HR (95% CI)a
 csDMARD 41 3571.5 Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00)
 bDMARD 12 542.5 2.77 (0.79–9.70) 1.51 (0.76–3.00)
  TNFi 9 481.1 1.46 (0.71–3.00) 1.32 (0.62–2.80)
  Non-TNFi NAb NAb NAb NAb
 Combination 19 1857.3 0.72 (0.42–1.25) 0.78 (0.43–1.40)
  TNFi 17 1717.3 0.76 (0.43–1.34) 0.76 (0.41–1.39)
  Non-TNFi NAb NAb NAb NAb
 Past-use 6 182.7 2.35 (1.05–5.26) 2.40 (1.04–5.56)
 Never-use NAb NAb NAb NAb
  1. bDMARD biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, CI confidence interval, csDMARD conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, IR incidence rate, HR hazard ratio, OA osteoarthritis, OR odds ratio, TNFi tumor necrosis factor inhibitor, JSN joint space narrowing
  2. aAdjusted for age, sex (time-invariant), body mass index, rheumatoid arthritis duration, rheumatoid factor (time-invariant), DAS28-esr score, prednisone use, cardiac disorders, hypertension, osteoporosis, hand surgery, large joint osteoarthritis, or hip/knee arthroplasty
  3. bNA: less than 5 outcomes not applicable for result estimation