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Table 5 Incidence rates, hazard ratios, and odds ratios of incident hand OA per treatment group following Cox regression analysis and GEE analysis among those without distal interphalangeal osteoarthritis at baseline (N = 894)

From: Increased radiographic progression of distal hand osteoarthritis occurring during biologic DMARD monotherapy for concomitant rheumatoid arthritis

Exposure Incident hand OA events Person-time [years] IR per 1000 person-years Crude HR (95% CI) Adjusted HR (95% CI) a Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)a
Analysis using baseline information only
 csDMARD 119 2239.0 53.1 Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00) NA NA
 bDMARD 10 147.2 67.9 1.44 (0.77–2.67) 1.41 (0.75–2.65) NA NA
 Combination 43 750.6 57.3 1.13 (0.80–1.60) 1.09 (0.75–1.58) NA NA
 Past-use 4 55.2 72.5 1.40 (0.54–3.61) 1.85 (0.73–4.66) NA NA
 Never-use 22 793.1 27.7 0.52 (0.33–0.84) 0.59 (0.36–0.97) NA NA
Time-varying analysis
 csDMARD 96 1952.7 49.2 Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00)
 bDMARD 20 377.6 53 0.94 (0.59–1.50) 0.89 (0.56–1.43) 1.14 (0.70–1.87) 1.05 (0.63–1.75)
 Combination 68 1212.7 56.1 1.06 (0.78–1.44) 1.07 (0.78–1.46) 1.08 (0.79–1.49) 1.04 (0.75–1.44)
 Past-use 7 111.4 62.8 1.06 (0.51–2.19) 1.08 (0.50–2.33) 1.51 (0.68–3.32) 1.46 (0.66–3.25)
 Never-use 7 330.7 21.2 0.55 (0.26–1.19) 0.72 (0.32–1.61) 0.92 (0.42–2.01) 1.05 (0.47–2.33)
  1. bDMARD biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, CI confidence interval, csDMARD conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, IR incidence rate, HR hazard ratio
  2. aAdjusted for age, sex (time-invariant), body mass index, rheumatoid arthritis duration, rheumatoid factor (time-invariant), DAS28-esr score, prednisone use, cardiac disorders, hypertension, osteoporosis, hand surgery, large joint osteoarthritis, or hip/knee arthroplasty