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Table 2 The pros and cons of different genetic methods for IGF-1 delivery

From: Insulin-like growth factor-1 in articular cartilage repair for osteoarthritis treatment

Vectors Advantage Disadvantage References
Retroviral vector Long-term expression of genes incorporated into host cells Insertion mutations, difficult to terminate expression, premature senescence of cells [1, 62]
Adenoviral vector High transfection efficiency and high level of gene products Severe immunogenicity [63]
Adeno-associated virus vector Excellent long-term gene transfer efficiency, no immune response, and a lack of toxicity and mutagenesis Small target genes can be inserted [64, 65]
Lentiviral vector Larger cDNA can be introduced into target cells without causing immune responses Safety unknown [66]
Nonviral gene delivery Improved safety The long-term effect is not good [1]