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Table 2 The pros and cons of different genetic methods for IGF-1 delivery

From: Insulin-like growth factor-1 in articular cartilage repair for osteoarthritis treatment





Retroviral vector

Long-term expression of genes incorporated into host cells

Insertion mutations, difficult to terminate expression, premature senescence of cells

[1, 62]

Adenoviral vector

High transfection efficiency and high level of gene products

Severe immunogenicity


Adeno-associated virus vector

Excellent long-term gene transfer efficiency, no immune response, and a lack of toxicity and mutagenesis

Small target genes can be inserted

[64, 65]

Lentiviral vector

Larger cDNA can be introduced into target cells without causing immune responses

Safety unknown


Nonviral gene delivery

Improved safety

The long-term effect is not good