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Table 2 Pathological mechanisms and putative miRNA in SSc-PAH

From: The role of TGF-β or BMPR2 signaling pathway-related miRNA in pulmonary arterial hypertension and systemic sclerosis

Mechanism Putative miRNA Potential function Reference
Apoptosis miR-21 Reduce the pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis [22]
miR-140-5p Promote cell apoptosis [31]
Cell proliferation miR-21 Antiproliferative effect in PAEC and PASMC [74]
miR-140-5p Inhibit cell proliferation [31, 77, 78]
Angiogenesis miR-21 Decrease angiogenesis [75]
Cell differentiation miR-140-5p Promote cell differentiation [31]
Cell migration miR-140-5p Inhibit cell migration [77, 78]
Vasodilation miR-21 Increase the pulmonary vasodilation [75]
Pulmonary fibrosis miR-21 Target of fibrosis inhibition [26]
let-7 family Reduce fibrosis [79]
miR-155 Reduce fibrosis [32, 80, 81]
Pulmonary hypertension miR-21 Increase the lung DDAH1and cGMP levels and attenuate pulmonary hypertension [76]
Pulmonary vascular remodeling miR-29a Decrease pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricle hypertrophy index and ameliorate pulmonary vascular remodeling [29, 82, 83]
  1. Abbreviation: PAEC pulmonary artery endothelial cell, PASMC pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell, DDAH1 dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases 1, cGMP cyclic guanosine monophosphate