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Table 2 Adjusted HRs (95% CIs) from Cox proportional hazards models for the linear association between SARDs and per interquartile increment in PM2.5 or ozone exposure.a, adjusting for different covariates, Quebec, 2000–2013

From: Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter and ozone and the onset of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases: an open cohort study in Quebec, Canada

Covariates included in the model PM2.5 Ozone
Age and sex 1.25 (1.16–1.34) 0.96 (0.82–1.00)
Age, sex, and deprivation index 1.22 (1.13–1.31) 0.99 (0.94–1.03)
Age, sex, deprivation index, and urban–rural residence 1.22 (1.11–1.35) 0.96 (0.89–1.02)
Age, sex, deprivation index, urban–rural residence, and smokingb 1.22 (1.10–1.34) -
Age, deprivation index, and urban–rural residence (male subgroup) 1.29 (1.08–1.55) 1.05 (0.95–1.15)
Age, deprivation index, and urban–rural residence (female subgroup) 1.20 (1.06–1.35) 0.97 (0.98–1.00)
  1. aThe interquartile ranges of PM2.5 and ozone are 3.97 µg/m.3 and 5.55 ppb respectively
  2. b Indirect adjustment based on ancillary data from the Canadian Community Health Survey