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Table 2 Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of patient clusters with GPA

From: Cluster analysis of patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) based on clinical presentation symptoms: a UK population-based cohort study

  All patients Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 p valuea
Number of patients 649 426 176 47 -
Median (IQR) age, years 60.0 (49.6- 70.1) 58.5 (47.8- 67.3) 63.5 (53.7-74.2) 68.9 (57.4-79.5) <0.001
Gender Females,n(%) 350 (53.9) 245 (57.5) 82 (46.6) 23 (48.9) 0.039
Smoking history,n(%) 293 (48.0) 186 (47.3) 86 (50.0) 21 (46.7) 0.828
 Missing 39 (6.0) 33 (7.7) 4 (2.3) 2 (4.3)
Townsend quintile,n(%)
1 (least deprived) 151 (23.3) 107 (25.1) 33 (18.8) 11 (23.4) 0.155
2 130 (20.0) 83 (19.5) 37 (21.0) 10 (21.3)
3 100 (15.4) 83 (19.5) 40 (22.7) 7 (14.9)
4 100 (15.4) 63 (14.8) 28 (15.9) 9 (19.1)
5 61 (9.4) 33 (7.7) 25 (14.2) 3 (6.4)
Missing 107 (16.5) 57 (13.4) 13 (7.4) 7 (14.9)
Eye 120 (18.5) 58 (13.6) 46 (26.0) 16 (34.0) < 0.001
ENT 385 (59.3) 211 (49.5) 157 (89.2) 17 (36.2) < 0.001
Cough 317 (48.8) 150 (35.2) 135 (76.7) 32 (68.1) < 0.001
Breathlessness 134 (20.6) 35 (8.2) 82 (46.6) 17 (36.2) < 0.001
Cardiovascular (Chest pain/angina) 32 (4.9) 7 (1.6) 18 (10.2) 7 (14.9) < 0.001
Chest pain (not specified) 189 (29.1) 76 (17.8) 102 (58.0) 11 (23.4) < 0.001
CKD 95 (14.6) 22 (5.2) 35 (19.9) 38 (80.9) < 0.001
ARF 50 (7.7) 11 (2.6) 11 (6.2) 28 (59.6) < 0.001
Proteinuria/haematuria 49 (7.6) 25 (5.9) 8 (4.5) 16 (34.0) < 0.001
Fatigue 137 (21.1) 53 (12.4) 68 (38.6) 16 (34.0) < 0.001
Constitutional 36 (5.5) 11 (2.6) 21 (11.9) 4 (11.1) < 0.001
Musculoskeletal 182 (28.0) 77 (18.1) 83 (47.2) 22 (46.8) < 0.001
Neuropathy 42 (6.5) 20 (4.7) 20 (11.4) 2 (4.3) 0.008
Dermatological (Rash) 188 (29.0) 61 (14.3) 117 (66.5) 10 (21.3) < 0.001
Gastrointestinal 92 (14.2) 27 (6.3) 65 (36.9) 0 (0.00) < 0.001
Non-specific abdominal symptoms 130 (20.0) 36 (8.5) 93 (52.8) 1 (2.1) < 0.001
  1. aFor comparison of the three clusters. ARF acute renal failure, CKD chronic kidney disease, ENT ear, nose, throat, IQR interquartile range