The present study indicates that genes encoding autoantigens associated with SSc are selectively overexpressed in SSc dermal fibroblasts. These findings raise the interesting possibility that activated fibroblasts might be the cellular source of autoantigens, results in the characteristic profile of SSc-specific autoantibodies. However, the the current study does not address whether the increase of autoantigens at the mRNA level is accompanied by an increase at the protein level, and whether an increase in the level of gene/protein expression is sufficient to initiate a complex autoimmune reaction. Notably, the increased expression of a specific autoantigen gene was not associated with the detection of the corresponding autoantibodies in the individual patient. However, as stated by the authors, other important cell types in the pathogenesis of SSc, such as endothelial cells, have not been studied.