Increased proliferation and Th1 cytokine production in cultures of draining lymph node cells from transgenic mice. (a) Cell proliferation five weeks after arthritis induction. Cells were stimulated in vitro with 50 μg/ml CII and cultivated for 48 hours (mean ± SEM). This experiment involved 10 transgenic and 11 wild-type mice. (b) Draining lymph node cell proliferation 20 weeks after arthritis induction. Cells were stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibody. Eight transgenic and six wild-type mice were included. (c,d) Cytokine levels were determined in the culture supernatants of draining lymph node cells after 20 weeks of arthritis using ELISA, in (c) cells stimulated with CII and (d) cells costimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibody. CII, chicken collagen type II; cpm, counts per minute; TG, transgenic; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; WT, wild-type.