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Table 3 Multivariate analysis of the factors associated with dispensation of selective COX-2 inhibitors versus traditional nonselective NSAIDs

From: Prescription channeling of COX-2 inhibitors and traditional nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a population-based case–control study

  Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Age group (years)   
   75+ 3.17 (3.01–3.34) 4.22 (3.95–4.51)
   55 to ≤74 2.86 (2.74–2.99) 3.23 (3.06–3.40)
   18–54 Reference Reference
Female sex 1.61 (1.52–1.66) 1.52 (1.45–1.58)
Income level (lower) 0.72 (0.68–0.76) 0.90 (0.85–0.96)
Prior diagnosis of gastropathy 1.93 (1.75–2.11) 1.21 (1.08–1.36)
Prior gastrointestinal procedures 1.94 (1.71–2.22) 1.09 (0.94–1.27)
Prior dispensation of gastroprotective agents 2.37 (2.25–2.50) 1.57 (1.47–1.67)
Prior referral to gastroenterologist 1.89 (1.69–2.12) 1.23 (1.08–1.39)
Prior history of NSAID use   
   Recent, first time 2.39 (2.14–2.66) 2.17 (1.93–2.43)
   Recent, chronic 1.58 (1.46–1.70) 1.21 (1.11–1.32)
   >1 to 3 months 1.12 (1.06–1.19) 0.95 (0.89–1.01)
   >3 to 12 months 0.93 (0.88–0.98) 0.84 (0.80–0.89)
   No use in past year Reference Reference
Corticosteroids 1.72 (1.62–1.82) 1.16 (1.07–1.24)
Anticoagulants 2.53 (2.15–2.98) 1.56 (1.32–1.85)
Antidepressants 1.69 (1.59–1.80) 1.37 (1.28–1.46)
Benzodiazepines 1.87 (1.78–1.95) 1.20 (1.14–1.26)
Acetaminophen 1.85 (1.76–1.94) 1.41 (1.34–1.49)
Low dose ASA 0.85 (0.81–0.89) 0.56 (0.52–0.59)
Chronic Disease Score   
   10+ 2.88 (2.65–3.14) 1.26 (1.13–1.41)
   5–9 2.21 (2.10–2.32) 1.28 (1.20–1.37)
   1–4 1.88 (1.80–1.97) 1.26 (1.19–1.33)
   0 Reference Reference
Specialist (versus GP) 0.99 (0.94–1.04) 0.89 (0.84–0.94)
Dosage   
   High dose 1.91 (1.80–2.03) 2.19 (2.06–2.33)
   Low dose 0.40 (0.38–0.42) 0.29 (0.27–0.30)
   Standard dose Reference Reference
Time period   
   January–June 0.72 (0.68–0.76) 0.54 (0.51–0.57)
   July–Sept 1.02 (0.95–1.09) 0.99 (0.92–1.06)
   October–December Reference Reference
  1. All covariables included simultaneously in the models are listed in this table; models were not adjusted for any other factors. ASA, acetylsalicylic acid; CI, confidence interval; COX, cyclo-oxygenase; GP, general practitioner; NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; OR, odds ratio.