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Table 1 Cytokine and neuropeptide concentrations in synovial fluid

From: Levels of gastrin-releasing peptide and substance P in synovial fluid and serum correlate with levels of cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis

Substance Early RA (pg/ml) Long-standing RA (pg/ml) P Controls (pg/ml)
   TNF-α 8.0a 7.0c ns nm
  (1.0–47) (1.0–24)   
   IL-6 5100b 3100d <0.05 ndf
  (4500–8000) (1300–3900)   
   MCP-1 1200b 1500d ns 620f
  (810–1800) (1200–3000)   
   BN/GRP 31a 17c <0.05 ndg
  (21–39) (7.0–23)   
   CGRP 580b 450d ns ndf
  (160–1500) (230–960)   
   NPY 190b 260e ns 180f
  (65–320) (170–500)   
   SP 48a 58c ns ndg
  (36–80) (42–77)   
   VIP 150b 300d ns nm
  (40–200) (55–630)   
  1. Concentrations were measured by ELISA and RIA in synovial fluid from the knee joints of patients with RA and in healthy control subjects. Values are medians (and Q1–Q3). P relates to long-standing RA versus early RA (Mann–Whitney test). an = 7; bn = 6; cn = 28; dn = 23; en = 25; fn = 2; gn = 10. BN/GRP, bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide; CGRP, calcitonin-gene-related peptide; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; nd, not detectable; nm, not measured; NPY, neuropeptide Y; ns, not significant; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SP, substance P; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; VIP, vasoactive intestinal peptide.