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Table 1 Cardiovascular risk factors in RA patients and control individuals

From: Biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis

Risk factors Controls Patients P
Traditional risk factors    
Age (years) 44 (20–87) 57 (27–81) <0.0001
Women (n [%]) 64 (80) 64 (86) 0.3
Caucasian:asian (n:n) 87: 6 71: 9 0.3
Smokers (n [%]) 25 (31) 17 (23) 0.3
Smoking (cigarettes/day) 0 (0–50) 0 (0–40) 0.5
Alcohol users (n [%]) 37 (47) 26 (35) 0.2
Alcohol (units/week) 0 (0–40) 0 (0–35) 0.4
Exercisers (n [%]) 43 (54) 19 (26) 0.0004
Exercise (hours/week) 1 (0–20) 0 (0–7) 0.0002
Diabetes (n [%]) 0 (0) 5 (7) 0.02
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.3 (17.9–33.8) 23.7 (17.9–38.3) 1.0
Waist (cm) 81 (60–109) 85 (66–120) 0.01
SBP (mmHg) 115 (83–150) 123 (98–164) <0.0001
DBP (mmHg) 71 (47–100) 82 (67–109) <0.0001
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.3 (2.1–7.9) 5.1 (3.5–7.5) 0.4
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.5 (0.4–2.3) 1.6 (0.8–2.6) 0.4
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.0 (0.5–4.7) 1.2 (0.5–2.6) 0.04
Nontraditional risk factors    
hs-CRP (mg/l) 1.6 (0.3–8.9) 10.8 (0.3–256) <0.0001
IL-1 (pg/ml) 0.7 (0–42.7) 3.5 (0.1–323) <0.0001
IL-6 (pg/ml) 0.8 (0.1–8.2) 5.4 (0.5–186.3) <0.0001
TNF-α (pg/ml) 0.2 (0.2–32.6) 3.0 (0.3–93.2) <0.0001
Cytokine suppressant therapy    
DMARD use (n [%]) 0 (0) 56 (76) <0.0001
Prednisone use (n [%]) 0 (0) 11 (15) 0.0003
  1. Results are expressed as median (range) unless indicated otherwise. Data were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U-test (continuous variables) or the χ2 test (dichotomous variables). DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DMARD, disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; IL, interleukin; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TNF, tumour necrosis factor.